National Guidelines on Forest Fire Management in Namibia
Final Draft 31 March/2001
(IFFN No. 25 - July 2001)
The extent of occurrence of forest fires in Namibia in recent years, especially during year 2000, shows that fire management efforts have to be strengthened throughout the country. Only East Caprivi has been able to show promising reduction in burned areas since the pilot efforts on Forest Fire Management started there in 1996.
In areas outside Eastern Caprivi, results have been slow in coming. One of the main reasons for the slow response is the lack of institutional capacity in the Directorate of Forestry (D.o.F.) itself. The same applies to the Agricultural Extension staff as well as the staff of the Directorate of Resource Management working outside Etosha. Some of the National Parks like Etosha have well established guidelines on Fire Management whereas others; like Mamili, Mudumu, Kaudom etc. are totally burned year after year. The Malengalenga-Liyambezi peat lands are also burned annually, through agricultural practices. This shows that the properties of peat are unknown among agricultural extensionists.
The outdated forest legislation has also been lacking in specific areas e.g. on guidelines for Forest Fire Management both in communal as well as in commercial farm areas. The uncertainty regarding fire management directives also applies to the Ministry of Regional, Local Government and Housing which Ministry, by and large, is responsible for all fire management activities in Namibia.
With the inception in 1996 of the Namibia’s Forestry Strategic Plan, the path was opened for community participation in local management of Forest Fires. These participation efforts were soon named Integrated Forest Fire Management activities or IFFM activities.
On the behalf of the Namibia-Finland Forestry Programme (NFFP) and its component on Integrated Forest Fire Management (IFFM) we would like to acknowledge the valuable contribution to the process of preparing the National Guidelines on Forest Fire Management for Namibia by the following persons:
Project Steering Committee:
Dr. H.O. Kojwang Director of Forestry, Chairman Dr. Alex Verlinden Remote sensing Specialist, NFFP Mr. Kari Alanko Councellor Embassy of Finland, Windhoek Ms. Sinikka Antila Councellor/Chargé d´Affaires, Embassy of Finland, Windhoek Mr. Moses Chakanga National Co-ordinator for NFFP Mr. Tomi Tuomasjukka Acting Consultant Team Leader, NFFP Mr. Harri Seppänen Consultant Team Leader, NFFP Ms. Marja-Ojanen-J Education Specialist NFFP/Ogongo Mr. Joseph Hailwa Deputy Director, Directorate of Forestry Mr. Osman Y. Hamid Education Specialist, Forest Department Head, Ogongo Mr. Mike Jurvélius Forest Fire Specialist, NFFP Mr. Dennis Sikabongo Fire Chief, Katima Mulilo Mr. Carlos Salinas Community Forestry Specialist, NFFP Mr. Thomas Selänniemi Forest Inventory Specialist, NFFP Mr. Jussi Viitanen Environmental Forestry Specialist, NFFP
National Persons Consulted:
Mr. Bernhard Sibalatani Governor of Caprivi Region Ms. G. Uushona Governor Otjozondjupa Region Ms. Anneli Shishome Chief Forester, north-west, D.o.F Mr. Simeon Hengari Forester, north-east , D.o.F. Mr. Giovanni Schoeman Emergency Officer, City of Windhoek Emergency Services Mr. Chris Hines Development Biologist, Windhoek Mr. Bornbright Lilungwe Traditional Authorities, Silalo Induna, Caprivi Mr. Walter Piepmeyer Forestry Officer , Otjozondjupa, D.o.F. Mr. Johan le Roux Remote Sensing & GIS Specialist, Etosha Mr. Konrad van Heerden Senior Inspector, Ministry of Basic Education, Sports & Culture Mr. Alex Musiyalela Director of Caprivi Drama Group Mr. Kasiwa Mukenani S. Painter; Caprivi Arts and Cultural Association
Prof. Dr. Johann G. Goldammer
Prof. Dr. Winston Trollope
Ms. Evelien Kamminga
Ms. Merja Mäkelä
Mr. Simeon Trigg
Dr. Ritva Kivikkokangas-S. Professor, University of Helsinki, Deptm. of Development Geography Ms. Krista Virtanen MSc-thesis work on Forest Fire attitudes (in Caprivi), University of Wolwerhampton.
The Ministry of Environment and Tourism through its Directorate of Forestry wishes to thank all the people listed above and additionally many others who's names do not appear above for their valuable contribution to these National Guidelines on Forest Fire Management in Namibia.
These new National Guidelines on Forest Fire Management are expected to become a yardstick for all Forest Fire Management activities in the country in the future.
We hope that these new Guidelines will be useful in developing suitable practices for sustainable forest management in Namibia.
Windhoek, April 2001
Chairman of Project Steering Committee
Dr. H.O. Kojwang
Director of Forestry
CACA Caprivi Arts and Cultural Association CBO Community based organization CBRM Community based resource management CEC Constituency Emergency Committee DFO District Forest Officer DRM Directorate of Resource Management D.o.F. Directorate of Forestry EOU Emergency Operational Unit ECE United Nations Economic Commission for Europe FAO Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations FBSO Fire Brigades Service Ordinance FDO Forestry District Office FPA Fire Protection Association GFMC Global Fire Monitoring Center GPTF Game Product Trust Fund IFFM Integrated Forest Fire Management IFFN International Forest Fire News (FAO/ECE) ILO International Labour Organization of United Nations Induna Village elder or village chief Induna Silalo District Village Chief ITTO International Tropical Timber Organization Khuta Council of Village or District Chiefs LIKWAMA Local farmers union in Caprivi MBESC Ministry of Basic Education, Sports and Culture MET Ministry of Environment and Tourism MRLGH Ministry of Regional, Local Government and Housing NamPol Namibian Police NBC Namibian Broadcasting Corporation NDF Namibian Defense Forces NEMC National Emergency Management Council NEMU National Emergency Management Unit Neudamm Agricultural College of the University of Namibia NFFP Namibia-Finland Forestry Programme NFF National Fire Forum NGO Non-governmental organization Ogongo Agricultural College of the University of Namibia PO People’s organization REC Regional Emergency Committee SADC Southern African Development Community TAA Traditional Authorities Act UNEP United Nations Environmental Programme WHO World Health Organization WMO World Meteorological Organization
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. NATIONAL FOREST FIRE POLICY AND LEGISLATION
II. FOREST FIRE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
III. INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK AND CAPACITY BUILDING
IV. SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS
V. PUBLIC TRAINING AND EDUCATION
VI. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
VII. MONITORING AND EVALUATION
IFFN No. 25