Wildland Fire Management Terminology

Entries found: 1488
English Spanish German French Description
abort descargar Notabwurf delester-larguer Drop of an unused load of water or fire retardant from an aircraft or helicopter (syn. jettison).
absolute humidity Absolute Luftfeuchtigkeit Total amount of water vapor in the air, normally expressed in grams of water vapor in a cubic meter of air.
accelerant [activador], acelerante de ignicion Brandbeschleuniger activant, produit activant Any substance applied to fuels to expedite the burning process.
acceptable burn Tolerierbare Brandfläche Maximum average area burned over a specified period of years that can be tolerated and sustained for a given area without disrupting overall forest management and other land use objectives (syn. allowable burned area).
acceptable damage daño tolerable, daño aceptable Schaden unterhalb der Schadensschwelle dommage acceptable Damage which does not seriously impair the flow of environmental, economic and social benefits from wildlands.
acceptable fire risk riesgo tolerable, riesgo aceptable Akzeptierbares Risiko eines Schadenfeuers risque de feu acceptable The potential fire loss that a community is willing to accept rather than provide resources to reduce such a loss.
accessibility burn quema para despeje Durchbrennen zur Verbesserung der Begehbarkeit nettoyage du sous bois par le feu [brulage de pre exploitation forestiere] Burning of understory to improve the efficiency of identifying and harvesting of timber and non-wood forest products (cf. premarking burn).
action plan plan de accion Aktionsplan plan d'intervention Any tactical plan developed by any element of the ICS in support of the incident action plan.
actionable fire incendio, incendio activo incendie dangereux : Schadenfeuer Any fire requiring suppression, especially a fire started or allowed to spread in violation of law, ordinance, or regulation.
active crown fire Vollfeuer see: forest fire
active fire Aktives Feuer Any wildfire on which suppression action has not reached an extensive mopup stage.
active resources medios en accion, recursos activos Verfügbare Ressourcen reserves actives Resources checked in at the reporting location and assigned work tasks at an incident.
activity fuel leñas de corta, combustibles de desechos de manajo Schlagabraum [dechets d'exploitation] Fuels resulting from or altered by forestry practices such as timber harvest, thinning, etc., as opposed to naturally created fuels (cf. natural fuel).
adapter acoplamiento mixto, adaptador Übergangsstück raccord intermediaire [Hydraulics] A device for coupling hoses of the same size, but which has non-matching hose threads, or for connecting a threaded coupling to a quick connect coupling.
adiabatic process Adiabatischer Prozess Thermodynamic change of state in which no heat is added or subtracted from a system; compression always results in warming, expansion in cooling.
Administrative and Forest Fire Information Retrieval and Management System (AFFIRMS) [Eigenname] Administrative and Forest Fire Information Retrieval and Management System. A computer system which permits entry of fire weather observations and forecasts and which performs the computation of fire danger indices (NWCG).
Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRRr) [Eigenname] A five-channel scanning instrument flown on NOAA environmental satellites that quantitatively measures electromagnetic radiation. Visible and infrared detectors can depict active wildland fires, smoke plumes, and fire effects (e.g. burn scars). Fire danger can be assessed by using the AVHRR-derived Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI).
advancing a line tender manguera, extender tiras Verlegen einer Schlauchleitung changement d'etablissement [de tuyaux] Moving the hose line toward a given area from the point where the access of the hose-carrying apparatus is limited.
advancing front combustion stage fase de propagacion phase active d'extension de l'incendie The period of combustion when a fire is spreading, usually accompanied by flaming combustion that releases heat to sustain the convection column (cf. flaming front).
advection adveccion Advektion advection The transfer in temperature, humidity, or the like resulting from horizontal movement of an air mass (distinguished from convection; cf. convection).
adze hoe azada Breithacke houe A fire-trenching or digging tool having a sharp, tempered blade, which is useful for heavy grubbing, trenching, and cutting.
aerial attack extincion aerea, ataque aereo, combate aereo Luftgestützte Brandbekämpfung attaque aerienne A fire suppression operation involving the direct use of fixed-wing or rotary aircraft to deliver fire fighting forces, suppressants, or retardants to or on a fire (syn. air attack, water bombing, water dropping).
aerial attack boss Einsatzleiter der luftgestützten Brandbekämpfung A person responsible for directing and coordinating multiple aircraft operating on a specific fire or division of a fire.
aerial detection deteccion aerea Luftgestützte Waldbrandentdeckung detection aerienne A system for or the act of discovering, locating, and reporting wildfires from aircraft. May be (1) planned (where an agency deploys detection aircraft for the specific purpose of detecting and reporting wildfires) or (2) unplanned (random - from aircraft not specifically hired or deployed for detection purposes, including private aircraft reports) (syn. air detection).
aerial fuel combustibles aereos Brennmaterial ohne Bodenkontakt combustibles sur pied The standing and supported live and dead fuels not in direct contact with the ground and consisting mainly of foliage, twigs, branches, stems, bark, lianas and other vines, moss and high brush. In general they easily dry out and may carry surface fires into the canopy (cf. ladder fuel).
aerial ignition ingicion desde el aire Luftgestützte Entzündung allumage par voie aerienne Ignition of wildland fuels by dropping incendiary devices or materials from aircraft, for example by a helitorch (cf. delayed aerial ignition devices, serial ignition device, helitorch, ping-pong ball system).
Aerial Ignition Device (AID) equipo para ignicion aerea; dispositivo para ignicion aerea [Vorrichtung für luftgestützte Entzündung] moyen d'allumage par voie aerienne Any device designed for the purpose of aerial ignition of wildland fuels (cf. aerial ignition, aerial torch, Delayed Aerial Ignition Devices, helitorch, ping-pong ball system).
aerial image interpretation Luftbildauswertung The process of identification and interpretaion of information from aerial photographs or digital information required for fire management purposes (for fire management planning and during wildfire suppression).
aerial observer vigilante aereo, observador aereo Luftbeobachter observateur aerien A person assigned to discover, locate, and report wildfires from an aircraft and to observe and describe conditions at the fire scene. Note: In Russia the functions of the aerial fire observer include coordination of aerial and ground attacks.
aerial reconnaissance reconocimiento aereo Luftgestützte Aufklärung reconnaissance aerienne Use of aircraft for observing fire behavior, values at risk, suppression activity, and other critical factors to facilitate command decisions on tactics needed for suppression.
aerial torch [Gerät zur Entzündung aus der Luft] Aerial ignition device slung from or mounted on a helicopter that dispenses ignited globs of gelled gasoline (cf. aerial ignition device, syn. helitorch).
aerosol Aerosol A gaseous suspension of fine particles such as dust, and smoke particles in the atmosphere, ranging between 0.1 and 10 µm in size (cf. fine particulate matter).
agency/area coordination center centro de coordinacion Einsatzleitstelle centre coordonnateur A facility which serves as a central point for one or more agencies to use in passing information and resource requests to the Operations Coordination Center; it may also serve as a dispatch center of one of the agencies.
agrosilvopastoral system Agro-silvopastorales Landnutzungssystem Land-use system in which woody perennials are used on the same land as agricultural crops and animals, in some form of spatial arrangement or temporal sequence. In fire management agrosilvopastoral systems are planned on fuelbreaks (particularly shaded fuelbreaks) to reduce fire risk by modifying understory vegetation and soil cover (cf. fuelbreak).
air attack extincion aerea, ataque aereo, combate aereo Luftgestützte Brandbekämpfung attaque aerienne The direct use of fixed-wing or rotary aircraft in the suppression of wildfires (to drop retardant or extinguishing agents, shuttle and deploy crews) (syn. aerial attack).
air attack base base aerea Einsatzflugplatz für Feuerlöschflugzeuge base (d’attaque) aerienne A permanent facility at which aircraft are stationed for use in air attack operations.
air coordinator (airco) coordinador aereo Luftgestützte Koordination der Flugzeugeinsätze coordonnateur aerien A light, fixed wing aircraft with experienced fire officer, who serves as an air coordinator for an air tanker attack.
air detection See: aerial detection
air mass Luftmasse An extensive body of air having similar properties of temperature and moisture in a horizontal plane.
air operations officer jefe de operaciones aereas Einsatzoffizier fuer den Flugbetrieb officier d'operations aeriennes The person responsible for all air operations (aerial attack, aerial detection, cargo dropping, transport, etc.) within an administrative unit or from an operating base.
air pollution Luftverunreinigung, Luftverschmutzung The general term alluding to the undesirable addition of substances (gases, liquids, or solid particles) to the atmosphere that are foreign to the natural atmosphere or are present in quantities exceeding natural concentrations.
air quality Luftqualität The composition of air with respect to quantities of pollution therein; used most frequently in connection with "standards" of maximum acceptable pollutant concentrations. Used instead of "air pollution" when referring to programs.
air-ground detection deteccion por tierra y aire, deteccion mixta tierra/aire Kombinierte Luft-Boden-Detektion von Feuer detection air-sol Any fire detection system combining fixed point coverage of key areas by ground detectors with aerial detection that is varied according to needs.
airborne particulates cf. Aerosol
aircraft network (air net) frecuencia de avion, red de comunicacion aerea Beweglicher Flugfunkdienst frequences de transmission, reseau radio aerien Radio frequencies primarily used for air operations.
airtanker avion apagafuegos, avion cisterna Löschflugzeug, Wasserbomber bombardier d'eau A fixed-wing aircraft fitted with tanks and equipment for dropping suppressants (plain water or water with foam or fire retardant chemicals) on fires (syn. water bomber, cf. helitanker, tanker).
airtanker base Einsatzflugplatz für Löschflugzeuge An operational base at which airtankers are held in readiness for action on fires. Generally includes dispatch facilities, crew day quarters, limited equipment storage, and administrative facilities. May also be equipped to provide fire retardant (cf. retardant base).
alidade Peildiopter, Winkelpeilgerät, Entfernungsmesser A sighting device used by lookouts to determine the horizontal bearing of a fire from a lookout (syn. bearing, fire finder map, osborne fire finder).
allocated resources medios enviados, recursos despachados Zugewiesene Ressourcen ressources allouees Resources that have been dispatched to an incident, but that have not yet checked in with the incident communications center (cf. assigned resources).
allowable burned area superficie quemada tolerable, superficie quemada permitida [Im Rahmen der Resourcenplanung akzeptierbare Brandfläche] tolerance de brulis, surface brulee tolerable Maximum average area burned over a specified period of years that can be tolerated and sustained for a given area without disrupting overall forest management and other land use objectives (syn. acceptable burn).
anchor point punto de iniciacion de la linea Ansatzpunkt zur Errichtung einer Bekämpfungslinie point strategique An advantageous location, usually a fire barrier, from which to start constructing a fireline. The anchor point is used to minimize the chance of being outflanked by the fire while the line is being constructed.
ancient fire Vorgeschichtliches Feuer Fire dated at prehistoric time scale (usually by radiocarbon analysis).
anemometer Windmesser An instrument designed to measure wind speed (syn. windspeed meter).
angled strip ignition see: ignition pattern
annual Annuelle Pflanze A plant completing its life cycle in a year or less.
annual burn Jährliches kontrolliertes Feuer A fire prescribed to an area to be burned annually.
anthropogenic fire Anthropogenes Feuer Fires caused (or intentionally applied) by humans (see recreation under fire cause, resident under fire cause).
anticyclone Antizyklone An area of high atmospheric pressure with closed clockwise circulation.
applicator aplicador Strahlrohr, Schaumstrahlrohr applicateur A special pipe or nozzle attachment for applying foam or water fog to fires, usually designated as „foam applicator“ or „fog applicator“.
appropriate management response (AMR) : [Feuer-Management-Entscheidung gemäss Vorgaben der Ressourcenbewirtschaftung] Specific actions taken in response to a wildland fire to implement protection and fire use objectives (USA: NWCG).
approved apto zugelassen homologue In fire service terminology, that which is inspected and listed by recognized fire-testing agencies. The term as used in National Fire Protection Association (US-NFPA) standards means approval by the authority having Jurisdiction, such as the fire chief, insurance inspection department, or other agency that enforces standards or regulations.
Aramid [Eigenname] The generic name for a high-strength, flame-resistant, synthetic fabric used in the shirts and pants of firefighters.
area burned Brandfläche A vegetated area affected by fire.
area grid ignition see: ignition pattern
area ignition contrafuego, zona de ignicion Grossflächige Entzündung allumage de zone, allumage simultane Ignition of several individual fires throughout an area to be broadcast burned or backfired, either simultaneously or in rapid succession, and so spaced that they add to and influence the main body of the fire to produce a hot, fast-spreading fire condition. Also called simultaneous ignition (see also: ignition pattern).
area of influence zona asignada, area de influencia Einsatzbereich zone d'operation Delineated area surrounding a base which can be reached first by the ground or air attack units assigned to the base.
area source [grossflächiges Entstehungsgebiet von Rauch] A source category of air pollution that generally extends over a large area. Prescribed burning, field burning, home heating, and open burning are examples of area sources.
armed armado Armiert arme A term used in air tanker parlance to indicate that the dropping mechanism is set to allow a programmed release of part or all of the load of fire suppressant.
arson Brandstiftung The act of willfully igniting a wildfire by anyone to burn, or spread to, vegetation or property without consent of the owner or his/her agent (cf. arson fire).
arson fire Durch Brandstiftung entstandenes Feuer A wildfire caused by arson (syn. incendiary fire, cf. arson).
ash Asche Residue remaining after a substance (e.g., organic matter) is burned.
aspect orientacion, exposicion Exposition exposition Cardinal direction toward which a slope faces (syn. exposure).
assigned resources Zugeteilte Ressourcen ressources affectees Resources checked-in and assigned work tasks on an incident (cf. allocated resources).
assignment Anweisung, Zuweisung Tasks given to resources to perform within a given operational period, based upon tactical objectives in the incident action plan.
assisting agency organismo colaborador [im Rahmen der Amtshilfe unterstützende Behörde] service d'aide et de secours An agency directly contributing tactical or service resources to another agency.
atmometer atmometro Evaporimeter evaporometre An instrument that provides an approximate measure of evapotranspiration by measuring the water loss from an artificial evaporating surface.
atmosphere Atmosphäre The air surrounding the earth, as a series of layers of different characteristics. Composed mainly of nitrogen and oxygen with traces of carbon, the it acts as a buffer between the sun and the Earth. The layers, extending away from the earth, in order:troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere.
atmospheric inversion see: inversion, atmospheric stability
atmospheric pressure Luftdruck, Atmosphärendruck The gravitational force exerted by a column of air extending from the point of concern to the outer limits of the atmosphere. Unit of measurement: kilopascal (kPa).
atmospheric stability estabilidad atmosferica Atmosphärische Stabilität stabilite atmospherique A meteorological term referring to the resistance of the atmosphere to turbulence and vertical motion (upward). With reference to fire management activities the atmosphere is usually described as neutral, stable, or unstable with respect to the dry adiabatic lapse rate (DALR) (1) Neutral Atmosphere: The temperature decrease with altitude is equal to the DALR (the atmosphere neither aids nor binders large-scale vertical motion). (2) Stable Atmosphere: The temperature decrease with altitude is less than the DALR (the atmosphere tends to suppress large-scale vertical motion). (3) Unstable Atmosphere: The temperature decrease with altitude is greater than the DALR (the atmosphere tends to support large-scale vertical motion). (cf. instability, inversion)
attack a fire ataque al incendio Brandbekämpfung, Feuerbekämpfung attaquer un feu (cf. fire suppression)
attack line tendido de manguera, tira preconectada Angriffsschlauchleitung ligne d'etablissement (de tuyaux) A line of hose, preconnected to the pump of a fire apparatus and ready for immediate use in attacking a fire. Contrasted to supply lines connecting a water supply with a pump or to feeder lines extended from a pump to various points around the perimeter of a fire.
attack time tiempo para primer ataque, tiempo de ataque inicial : (1) Zeitpunkt des Erstangriffs, (2) Verzugszeit zwischen Alarmierung and Angriff (Reaktionszeit) delai d'intervention (1) The starting date, hour, and minute of the first suppression work on a fire. (2) Elapsed time from the end of report time to the first organized attack; includes both get-away time and travel time (syn. response time).
attack unit unidad de ataque Feuerbekämpfungseinheit unite de lutte A single vehicle or aircraft and its associated personnel and material provided for the purpose of responding to and abating a fire or other emergency.
attack unit response actuacion de la unidad de ataque Einsatz (Reaktion) einer Feuerbekämpfungseinheit efficacite de l'unite The response of one attack unit to a fire or other emergency with no regard for the number of return trips to that same fire or emergency.
Automatic Lightning Detection System (ALDS)) detector automatico de rayos Blitzschlag-Ortungssystem detecteur automatique de foudre A network of electronic field sensors linked to a central computer to detect, triangulate, plot the location, and record cloud-to-ground lightning flashes in real time over a predetermined area.
available fuel conbustible disponible [Unter aktuellen Bedingungen brennbares Material] The portion of the total fuel that actually burns or would actually burn under specified burning and fuel conditions.
available fuel energy Freiwerdende Energie Amount of heat released per unit area when the available fuel burns, expressed in Kilo Joules per square meter (kJ/m2) (cf. fuel energy available for convection).
available resources medios disponibles, recursos disponibles Ressourcen, die unverzüglich zur Verfügung stehen forces immediatement disponibles Resources assigned to an incident and available for an assignment within three minutes.
average relative humidity humedad relativa media Durchschnittliche relative Luftfeuchtigkeit humidite relative moyenne Arithmetic average of the maximum and minimum relative humidities measured at a fire weather station from one base observation time to the next
average temperature temperatura media Durchschnittstemperatur temperature moyenne Arithmetic average of the maximum and minimum dry-bulb temperatures measured at a fire weather station from one base observation time to the next
avoidance [Vermeidung von Rauchbelastung] A smoke emission control strategy that considers meteorological conditions when scheduling prescribed fires in order to avoid incursions into smoke sensitive areas
azimuth azimut Azimut azimut The horizontal angle or bearing of a point measured clockwise from the true (astronomic) north
azimuth circle circulo graduado, circulo azimutal Kreisteilung (für Bestimmung des Azimuts) Kreisteilung (für Bestimmung des Azimuts) A circle graduated in 360 degrees in a clockwise direction from the true (astronomic) north
back see: forest fire
backburn quema contra el viento Gegenwindfeuer brulage a contrevent Any prescribed fire burning against the wind
backfire contrafuego Gegenfeuer contrefeu A fire spreading, or set to spread, into or against the wind: (1) As used in fire suppression: A fire set along the inner edge of a control line to consume the fuel in the path of a forest fire and/or change the direction of force of the fire's convection column (Note: doing this on a small scale and with closer control, in order to consume patches of unburned fuel and aid control-line construction (as in mopping-up) is distinguished as "burning out, firing out, clean burning"); (2) As used in prescribed burning: designation of fire movement in relation to wind (syn. backing fire, cf. flank fire).
backfire ignition see: ignition pattern
backfiring Gegenfeuer anlegen A form of indirect attack where extensive fire is set along the inner edge of a control line or natural barrier, usually some distance from the wildfire and taking advantage of indrafts, to consume fuels in the path of the fire, and thereby halt or retard the progress of the fire front
background level In atmospheric science and air pollution control, the concentration of air pollutants in a definite area during a fixed period of time prior to the starting up of a source of emission.
backing fire fuego contra el viento Gegenwindfeuer brulage a contre courant-feu a la recule, feu a la rebrousse A fire spreading against the wind or downhill. Flames tilt away from direction of spread (syn. backfire).
backing wind giro ciclonico, viento ciclonico Rückwärtsdrehender Wind vent tournant = vent changeant A wind that changes direction in a counterclockwise motion
backpack pump extintor de mochila, bomba de espalda Rückenspritze pompe a dos, seau pompe (dorsal) A portable water container equipped with a hand pump and back-pack straps carried on the back of fire fighters; used for applying water or fire retardant, in suppression and mop-up operations (syn. bladder bag, pack pump)
baffle rompeolas Prallplatte deflecteur A partitioned wall placed in vehicular or aircraft water tanks to reduce shifting of the water load when starting, stopping or turning
bambi-bucket A collapsible bucket slung below a helicopter. Used to dip water from a variety of sources for fire suppression.
banking snags [aporcar arboles secos] [Erdaufwurf um Dürrständer] jets de sable [terre] The act of throwing mineral soil about the base of an unlighted snag to prevent its ignition by a surface fire
barometer Barometer An instrument for measuring the pressure of the atmosphere
barrier barrera Barriere, Feuerbarriere obstacle, barriere Any obstruction to the spread of fire, typically an area or strip devoid of combustible material
base base Basis base [zone de reference] (1) The location at which primary logistics functions for an incident are coordinated and administered. There is only one base per incident. The incident command post may be collocated with the base. (2) The location of initial attack forces.
base area zone representativa del peligro [Bezugsgebiet für den Feuergefahrenindex] secteur homogene integrant les problemes des incendies; perimetre pilote Term of the US National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS): An area representative of the major fire problems on a protection unit. Base fuel model and slope class are chosen from the base area.
base camp Basislager, Hauptstützpunkt A strategically located camp through which personnel, equipment, and supplies are distributed to line camps; usually serves as the fire headquarters from which key overhead personnel plan and direct suppression operations
base fuel model modelo de combustible Brennstoff- (Brennmaterial)-Modell modele de combustible Term of the US National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS): A representation of the vegetative cover and fuel in a base area. Used in the calculation of fire danger rating.
base heliport helipuerto Hubschrauberstützpunkt heliport A takeoff and landing place for helicopters serving a fire or other incident
base observation time hora de toma de datos, hora representativa de toma de datos Bezugszeitpunkt für die Messung des Feuerwetters horaires critiques de surveillance Term of the US National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS): The time established to take the fire danger observations. It should be at the time of day when the fire danger is normally the highest. The usually agreed upon time is 13:00 local time. This allows time to transmit observations and prepare forecasts.
baseline quema controlada, linea de apoyo Ausgangs- bzw. Absicherungslinie zum Kontrollierten Brennen ligne de mise a feu In prescribed burning, the initial line of fire, usually set as a backing fire along a road, stream, or firebreak, which serves to contain subsequent burning operations
batch mix Manually adding and mixing a concentrated chemical, such as liquid foam, or powdered or liquid retardant with water, or gelling agents with fuel, into solution in a tank or container
bay see: forest fire
bearing Peilung The horizontal direction to or from any point, usually measured clockwise from true north, or some other reference point through 360 degrees (cf. alidade, azimuth, fire finder map)
beaufort wind scale escala beaufort Beaufort-Skala echelle beaufort pour le vent A systern of estimating and reporting wind speeds. In its present form for international meteorological use, this scale equates (a) Beaufort force (or Beaufort number), (b) wind speed, (c) descriptive term, and (d) visible effects upon land objects or sea surface
BEHAVE (Eigenname eines Computerprogramms zur Modellierung von Brennmaterial und Feuerverhalten) A system of interactive computer programs for modelling fuel and fire behavior, comprised of two subsystems: burn and fue
belt weather kit equipo meteorologico portatil Tragbarer meteorologischer Gerätesatz equipement meteorologique portatif Belt-mounted case with pockets fitted for anemometer, compass, sling psychrometer, slide rule, water bottle, pencils, and book of weather report forms. Used to take weather observations to provide on-site conditions to the fire weather forecaster or fire behavior analyst. Observations include air temperature, wind speed and direction, and relative humidity.
berm caballon, camellon Berme berme A ridge of soil and debris along the edge of a fireline, resulting from line construction; may be created on the downhill side to stop rolling material.
biofuel Natürliches Brennmaterial Fuel of biological origin, which recently was either alive (phytomass) or came from living organism (dung, biogas)
biomass Biomasse (1) The amount of living matter in a given habitat, expressed either as the weight of organisms per unit area or as the volume of organisms per unit volume of habitat. (2) Organic matter that can be converted to fuel and is therefore regarded as a potential energy source. Note: Organisms include plant biomass (phytomass) and animal biomass (zoomass). (3) In fire science the term biomass is often used synonymously with the term "fuel" and includes both living and dead phytomass (necromass); the zoomass is usually excluded.
biosphere Biosphäre Part of the Earth system in which life can exist, between the outer portion of the geosphere and the inner portion of the atmosphere
birddog director de extincion aerea, guia y coordinador de lanzamientos Führungsflugzeug für Feuerlöschflugzeuge coordinateur aerien (IDEM AIRCO) = airco [CDF] = air attack boss [USA] An aircraft carrying the person (birddog officer) responsible for assessing and coordinating air operations and target selections for aerial fire suppression (syn. lead plane)
black body cuerpo negro Schwarzer Strahler corps noir A substance which absorbs all electromagnetic radiation incident upon it and emits all wavelengths with maximum possible intensity for any given temperature
blackline contrafuego secundario, linea negra Feuerschutzstreifen [kontrolliert gebrannt] ligne de securite Preburning of fuels, either adjacent to a control line before igniting a prescribed fire, or along a roadway or boundary as a deterrent to human-caused fires. Blacklining is usually done in heavy fuels adjacent to a control line during periods of low fire danger to reduce pressure on holding forces; blackline denotes a condition in which there is no unburned fine fuel remaining.
bladder bag Rückenspritze (faltbar), „Wasserrucksack“ A collapsible backpack portable sprayer made of neoprene or high-strength nylon fabric fitted with a pump (syn. backpack pump)
blind area zona ciega Nicht einsehbares Gelände (im Sichtschatten) zone cachee An area in which neither the ground nor its vegetation can be seen from a given observation point
blow down arbolado tirado por el viento, arbolado volteado por viento Windwurf, Sturmwurf zone a chablis An area of previously standing timber which has been blown over by strong winds or storms (cf. windfall)
blow-up reavivado repentino, explosion incendiaria flambee explosive A sudden increase in fire intensity and rate of spread, sufficient to preclude immediate control, or to upset existing suppression plans, often accompanied by violent convection or other characteristics of a fire storm (cf. extreme fire behavior, conflagration, run of a fire).
bone yard limpiar hasta el suelo mineral (1) Nachlöschen (1) reduire systematiquement les sources de reprises d'incendies [passer au peigne fin le terrain en fin d'incendie], (2) traiter a sol nu A mop-up term: (1) To systematically work the entire area, scraping embers off remaining fuel, feeling for heat with the hands, and piling unburned materials in areas cleared to mineral soil. (2) An area cleared to mineral soil for piling unburned fuels.
booster hose Schlauch einer Schnellangriffseinrichtung The most common type of hose attached and stored on wildland engine booster reels. The hose is made of neoprene and does not appreciably collapse when stored empty.
booster pump bomba de impulsion, bomba auxiliar Verstärkerpumpe autopompe auxiliaire aprelais An intermediary pump for supplying additional lift in pumping water uphill past the first pump capacity
booster reel : carrete de primer socorro, carrete auxiliar para ataque inicial Schnellangriffseinrichtung devidoir auxiliaire A reel for the booster hose mounted on fire apparatus. This reel usually carries a 1-inch (25 mm) or 3/4 inch (19 mm) hose and frequently contains an electric rewind mechanism.
boundary conditions condicion del aire en contacto Grenzschichtbedingungen conditions limites The temperature and relative humidity of the boundary layer
boundary layer aire en contacto, capa de aire de contacto Grenzschicht air ambiant du combustible, air en contact du combustible The air in immediate contact with a fuel particle
bowles bag deposito para helicoptero, estanque colapsable [Neopren-Aussenlastbehälter für Hubschrauber] conteneur „bowles“ (helicoptere) A neoprene tank designed for attachment to the landing skid frame of a helicopter. It has a capacity of 300 to 400 liters of water or retardant.
box canyon vaguada encajonada sin salida, cuenca estrecha Geschlossenes Tal mit Steilwänden vallee etroite fermee, reculee A steep-sided, dead end canyon
break a line acoplar una valvula en un tendido de manguera Verteiler einsetzen installer une vanne sur une ligne de tuyaux To insert a gate valve or some other device into a hose line
break coupling desacoplar manguera, desacoplar Schlauchkupplung lösen desaccoupler To detach two pieces of hose by backing the swivel thread off the nipple thread
break left or right girar a derecha o izquierda, quebrar a derecha o izquierda Links- oder Rechtskurve virer a gauche ou a droite Turn left or right; applies to aircraft in flight, usually on the drop pass. When given as a command to the pilot, prompt compliance is implied.
breakover fuego que rebasa la linea de defensa Überspringen franchissant une ligne d’arret (1) A fire edge that crosses a control line intended to confine the fire. (2) The resultant fire.
broadcast burning [s] quema controlada [l] quema al voleo Flächiges Abbrennen brulage extensif, brulage programme Allowing a prescribed fire to burn over a designated area within well-defined boundaries for reduction of fuel hazard, as a silvicultural treatment, or both (term mainly used for slash burning) (cf. center firing, windrow burning)
brown & burn aplicacion de herbicidas [Abbrennen nach chemischer Behandlung] defaner chimiquement et bruler Application of an herbicide in order to desiccate living vegetation prior to burning
brownspot control [Kontrolle der Braunflecken-Pilzerkrankung] Prescribed fire to control fungal infection (brown spot disease, Septoria acicola) of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) in the "grass" (small seedling) stage
brush matorral Busch, Gebüsch, Strauch broussailles A collective term that refers to stands of vegetation dominated by shrubby, woody plants or low growing trees (syn. scrub)
brush blade apilador de maleza Räumschild, Räumgabel lame debroussailleuse A collective term that refers to stands of vegetation dominated by shrubby, woody plants or low growing trees (syn. scrub)
brush fire fuego de matorral Buschfeuer feu de broussailles A fire burning in vegetation that is predominantly shrubs, brush, and scrub growth
brush hook podon, rozon Rode-Hacke, -Forke, -Haue serpe Heavy cutting tool with a wide blade, generally curved to protect the blade from being dulled by rocks; designed primarily to cut brush at the base of the stem, and used in much the same way as an axe.
brush management control del matorral, manejo del matorral Busch-Management debroussaillement Manipulation of stands of brush by manual, mechanical, chemical, or biological means or by prescribed burning for the purpose of achieving land management objectives
brush patrol unit [unidad de patrullaje en matorral] Geländegängige Feuerpatrouille patrouille legere (en maquis) Any light, mobile vehicular unit with a limited pumping and water capacity for off-road operations (ICS)
bucket see: helibucket
bucket drops Abwurf von Feuerlöschmitteln aus Aussenlastbehälter The dropping of fire retardants or suppressants from specially designed buckets slung below a helicopter
buffer strip/zone Pufferzone A fuel break on the form of a strip of land along or adjacent to roads, trails, watercourses and recreation sites, or between (separating) fuel complexes (cf. fuelbreak)
build-up (3) efecto de aceleracion (1) Erhöhung (Anwachsen) der Feuergefahr, (2) Aufbau der Feuer-Management-Organisation, (3) Erhöhung der Ausbreitungsgeschwindigkeit, (4) Aufbau von Cumulus- (Gewitter-) Wolken (1) effet(s) cumulatif(s) de secheresse, (2) renforcement de defense, (3) augmentation (1) The cumulative effects of long-term drying on current fire danger. (2) The increase in strength of a fire management organization. (3) The accelerated spreading of a fire with time. (4) Towering cumulus clouds which may lead to thunderstorms later in the day
Buildup Index (BUI) Aufbau-Index see: Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index Table
bulldozer Bulldozer, Planierraupe A large, powerful tractor having a vertical blade at the front end for moving earth, rocks, tree stumps, etc.
bumpup method construccion progresiva de la linea de defensa [Progressiver Aufbau einer Bekaempfungslinie] construction progressive d'une ligne de defense A progressive system of building a fireline on a wildfire without changing relative positions in the line. Work is begun with a suitable space, such as 5 m, between workers. Whenever one worker overtakes another, all of those ahead move one space forward and resume work on the incompleted part of the line. The last worker does not move ahead until the work is complete in his/her space. Forward progress of the crew is coordinated by a crew leader (syn. moveup method).
burn superficie quemada : (1) Brandflaeche, (2) Referenznummer eines Feuers, (c) Verbrennung (Verbrennungsgrad; medizinisch) surface brulee (1) A place or area burned over by a wildland or prescribed fire. (2) A reference to a working fire. (3) An injury to flesh caused by a cauterizing agent, heat from a fire, or a heated object. a) First Degree Burn: A burn which causes only pain, redness, and swelling. b) Second Degree Burn: A burn in which the skin is blistered. c) Third Degree Burn: A flesh burn in which charring occurs.
burn boss Einsatzleiter (kontrolliertes Brennen) Operations chief for a prescribed fire
burn patterns Brandmuster, Brandmosaik The characteristic configuration of char left by a fire; in wildland fires burn patterns are influenced by topography, wind direction, length of exposure, and type of fuel. They can be used to trace a fire's origin.
burn plan Brennplan A definite project or specified program under which a prescribed fire is conducted
burn severity Einwirkungsintensität des Feuers A qualitative assessment of the heat pulse directed toward the ground during a fire. Burn severity relates to soil heating, large fuel and duff consumption, consumption of the litter and organic layer beneath trees and isolated shrubs, and mortality of buried plant parts.
burn-out time Verweilzeit The duration of active flaming and smouldering combustion at a given point in the ground, surface, and crown fuel layers (cf. combustion period, residence time)
burn-out time Ende der Brandphase Duration of the combustion (including flaming, glowing and smoldering combustion phases) at a specified location (cf. combustion period)
burning ban prohibicion de quemas Brennverbot interdiction de bruler A declared ban on open air burning within a specified area, usually due to sustained high fire danger
burning block bloque de quema Brennfläche (geplant, für kontrolliertes Brennen) unite de brulage In prescribed burning, an area having sufficiently uniform conditions of stand and fuel to be treated uniformly under a given burning prescription (Note: The size ranges from the smallest that allows an economically acceptable cost per acre, up to the largest that can conveniently and safely be treated in one burning period)
burning conditions condiciones del incendio Brennbedigungen conditions de feu (de brulage) The state of the combined components of the fire environment that influence fire behaviour and fire impact in a given fuel type. Usually specified in terms of such factors as fire weather elements, fire danger indexes, fuel load, and slope.
burning index indice de ignicion, indice de combustion Feuerindex indice de risque immanent d’incendie An estimate of the potential difficulty of fire containment as it relates to the flamelength at the head of the fire. A relative number related to the contribution that fire behavior makes to the amount or effort needed to contain a fire in a specified fuel type. Doubling the burning index indicates that twice the effort will be required to contain a fire in that fuel type as was previously required, providing all other parameters are held constant.
burning off quemar Abbrennen brulage de nettoiement (1) Generally, setting fire, with more or less regulation, to areas carrying unwanted vegetation, such as rough, grass, slash, and other fuels. (2) A fire suppression operation where fire is set to consume islands of unburned fuel inside the fire perimeter during mop-up operations (Canada).
burning out Anlegen eines Vorfeuers A fire suppression operation where fire is set along the inside edge of a control line or natural barrier to consume unburned fuel between the line and the fire perimeter, thereby reinforcing the existing line and speeding up the control effort. Generally a limited, small-scale routine operation as opposed to backfiring (syn. burnout).
burning period periodo de maximo peligro, periodo de maxima ignicion Tageszeit grösster Brennbereitschaft / Feuergefahr periode journaliere de feu maximum That part of each 24-hour day when fires are generally the most active, typically from mid-morning to late afternoon (varying with latitude and time of year) (syn. critical burning period)
burning prescription Brennvorschrift (kontrolliertes Brennen) A written statement and/or list defining the objectives to be attained from prescribed burning, as well as the burning conditions under which fire will be allowed to burn, generally expressed as acceptable ranges of the various parameters, and the limit of the geographic area to be covered
burning priority rating [Festlegen von Proritäten für kontrolliertes Brennen] System of rating slash to indicate the treatment objective, whether or not burning is required to meet that objective, the fuel treatment necessary to achieve successful burning, and the time of year burning should occur
burning rotation Brennintervall (kontrolliertes Brennen) The planned number of years between prescribed fires on a specified area
burning torch antorcha de goteo Feuerkanne, Flämmgerät torche A flame-generating device (e.g. a fount containing diesel oil or kerosene and a wick, or a backpack pump serving a flame-jet) used for many purposes, e.g. scorching seed-beds, paths etc., to reduce weed growth or for starting slash-disposal fires, counter-fires (when termed a backfire torch [USA]) or any prescribed burning operations (cf. drip torch, flame thrower)
bushfire Buschfeuer A fire classification frequently used for a wildfire burning in vegetation dominated by bush (shrub, scrub). In Australia bushfire often is used synonymously for wildfires burning in any wildlands.
bushfire brigade Buschfeuerbrigade Volunteer, rural firefighting crew (Australia)
byram’s intensity see: fireline intensity
cache Materiallager (für Waldbrandeinsätze) A pre-determined complement of tools, equipment and/or supplies stored in a designated location, available for incident use
calculation of probabilities calculo de probabilidades Eventualplanung calcul de probabilite Evaluation of all factors pertinent to probable future behavior of a going fire and of the potential ability of available forces to carry out control operations on a given time schedule
called shot orden de descarga Abwurfkommando ordre de largage A drop technique in which the air attack boss, birddog officer, or airco (CDF) triggers the drop by voice signal to the air tanker pilot, e.g., "Ready, 3, 2, 1, . . . now!"
camp campamento Lager camp A temporary place, within the general fire area and separate from the Incident Base, equipped and staffed to provide food, water, and sanitary services to fire personnel (ICS)
campaign fire gran incendio, incendio de magnitud Grossfeuer (incendie campagne) grand feu A fire of such size, complexity and/or priority that its extinction requires a large organization, high resource commitment, significant expenditure, and prolonged suppression activity
campfire hoguera, fogata Waldbrandursache: Camping- oder Lagerfeuer feu accidentel (de campement) In reference to forest fire causes, a fire started for cooking, warmth, or light that has spread into the surrounding wildland and turned into a wildfire
Canadian Forest Fire Behavior Prediction (CFFBP) System Kanadisches System zu Vorhersage des Feuerverhaltens A subsystem of the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System. The FBP System provides quantitative outputs of selected fire behaviour characteristics for certain major Canadian fuel types and topographic situations. For example, head fire rate of spread, which can be adjusted for the mechanical effects of slope, is expressed in metres per minute (m/min). The system depends partly on the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System components as inputs.
Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating (CFFDR) System forest fire danger rating system sistema canadiense de i: evaluacion del grapo de peligro Waldbrandgefahrenindex (Kanada) systeme canadien d’evaluation du risque d’incendie The national system of rating fire danger in Canada. The CFFDRS includes all guides to the evaluation of fire danger and the prediction of fire behaviour such as the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System and Canadian Forest Fire Behavior Prediction System.
Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index Table tablas del indice meteorologico canadiense de peligro de incendio Waldbrandwetterindex, Tabelle (Kanada) table des indices meteorolagiques des feux de forest au canada A subsystem of the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System; referred to previously by a variety of names (e.g., Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index, Canadian Fire Weather Index, Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index Tables). The components of the FWI System provide numerical ratings of relative fire potential in a standard fuel type (i.e., a mature pine stand) on level terrain, based solely on consecutive observations of four fire weather elements measured daily at noon (1200 hours local standard time or 1300 hours daylight saving time) at a suitable fire weather station; the elements are dry-bulb temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and precipitation. The system provides a uniform method of rating fire danger across Canada.The FWI System consists of six components. The first three are fuel moisture codes that follow daily changes in the moisture contents of three classes of forest fuel; higher values represent lower moisture contents and hence greater flammability. The final three components are fire behaviour indexes representing rate of spread, amount of available fuel, and fire intensity; their values increase as fire weather severity worsens.The six standard codes and indexes of the FWI System are:Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC) - A numerical rating of the moisture content of litter and other cured fine fuels. This code indicates the relative ease of ignition and flammability of fine fuel.Duff Moisture Code (DMC) - A numerical rating of the average moisture content of loosely compacted organic layers of moderate depth. This code indicates fuel consumption in moderate duff layers and medium-sized woody material.Drought Code (DC) - A numerical rating of the average moisture content of deep, compact, organic layers. This code indicates seasonal drought effects on forest fuels, and the amount of smouldering in deep duff layers and large logs.Initial Spread Index (ISI) - A numerical rating of the expected rate of fire spread. It combines the effects of wind and FFMC on rate of spread but excludes the influence of variable quantities of fuel.Buildup Index (BUI) - A numerical rating of the total amount of fuel available for combustion that combines DMC and DC. (Referred to as the Adjusted Duff Moisture Code or ADMC between 1969 and 1975.)Fire Weather Index (FWI) - A numerical rating of fire intensity that combines ISI and BUI. It is suitable as a general index of fire danger throughout the forested areas of Canada.
candle bark Streifenförmige Borke torche d’ecorce Long streamers of bark decorticated from some gum-barked Eucalyptus species and forming a firebrand responsible for long-distance spotting
candle/candling arbol inflamado, arbol coronado Auffackeln arbre torche Ignition and flare up of the foliage of a tree (or small clump of trees), usually from bottom to top (syn. torching)
carbon cycle Kohlenstoffkreislauf All parts (reservoirs) and fluxes of carbon. The cycle is usually thought of as four main reservoirs of carbon interconnected by pathways of exchange. The reservoirs are the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere (usually includes freshwater systems), oceans, and sediments (includes fossil fuels). The annual movements of carbon, the carbon exchanges between reservoirs, occur because of various chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes. The ocean contains the largest pool of carbon near the surface of the Earth, but most of that pool is not involved with rapid exchange with the atmosphere.
carbon dioxide (CO2) Kohlendioxid A colourless, odourless, incombustible gas. CO2 is present in the atmosphere and is formed during respiration and oxidation processes, and combustion (phytomass, fossil energy sources)
carbon monoxide (CO) Kohlen(stoff)monoxid A colourless, odourless, poisonous gas produced by incomplete fuel combustion
carried wet manguera en carga, tira humeda Führen von "nassen" Schlauchleitungen amorce Booster hose carried full of water during mild weather to speed discharge of water on fire without filling or priming from tank
carrier fuels Brenntmaterial (in dem sich die Flammfront ausbreitet) The fuels that support the flaming front of the moving fire
cascading descarga de agua (libre) [Offener Abwurf der flüssigen Löschladung] larguer en cascade Free-fall dropping of uncontained, liquid fire retardant or suppressant materials, not in spray form
casuals personal voluntario, combatiente ocasional Hinzugezogene Löschkräfte der Alarmreserve pompiers occasionnels Emergency firefighters employed to cope with a sudden and unexpected emergency caused by fire, or the extreme fire potential, which threatens damage to property under public management
catastrophic fire Feuerereignis mit katastrophalen Auswirkungen A fire which has significant negative impacts on the sustainability of ecosystems and human assets
category day [Numerischer Index der Rauchdispersion] A numerical index related to the ability of the atmosphere to disperse smoke (scales are not standardized)
catface rodete de cicatrizacion, cicatriz Brandnarbe tete de chat A defect on the surface of a tree or log resulting from a wound where healing has not re-established the normal cross-section (in Australia: syn. cats eye)
causes of fires causas de incendios Ursache von Feuer bzw. Bränden causes d’incendies For statistical purposes, wildfires are grouped into broad cause classes. Classifications vary between countries or regions. The following example is a classification, adopted by the Canadian Committee on Forest Fire Management in 1980, is used for reporting national wildfire statistics:Lightning – a wildfire caused directly or indirectly by lightning.Recreation – a wildfire caused by people or equipment engaged in a recreational activity (e.g., vacationing, fishing, picnicking, non-commercial berry picking, hiking).Resident – a wildfire resulting from activity performed by people or machines for the purpose of agriculture or an accidental fire caused by activity associated with normal living in a forested area.Forest Industry – a wildfire caused by people or machines engaged in any activity associated with forest products production.Other Industry – a wildfire caused by industrial operations other than forest industry or railroads. Includes municipal, provincial, or federal works projects whether employees, agents, or contractors.Railroads – a wildfire caused by any machine, employee, agent, or contractor performing work associated with a railway operation, or a passenger on a train.Incendiary – a wildfire wilfully started for the purpose of mischief, grudge, or gain.Unknown – a wildfire where cause is not determinable.Miscellaneous – a wildfire of known cause that cannot be properly classified under any of the other standard classes listed above.Classification in the Region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE): Natural (lightning), human (arson, negligence; within negligence: agricultural operations, logging and forest operations, other industrial activities, communications, general public, other).Classification in the U.S.A.: lightning, campfire, smoking, debris, burning, incendiary, machine use (equipment) railroad, children, and miscellaneous.
ceiling techo de nubes Hauptwolkenuntergrenze plafond (1) Height above the earth's surface of the lowest layer of clouds or obscuring phenomena aloft that is not classified as a thin layer or partial obscuration, that together with all lower clouds or obscuring phenomena covers more than half the sky as detected from the point of observation. (2) Maximum height of a temporary flight restriction (TFR)
center fire ignition see: ignition pattern
center firing quema controlada desde el centro, encendido central [Entzündung eines zentralen Feuers beim Flächenbrennen zur Erzeugung konvektiver Aktivität] allumage central, mise a feu centrale (allumage central) A method of broadcast burning in which fires are set in the center of the area to create a strong indraft; additional fires are then set progressively nearer the outer control lines as indraft builds up so as to draw the flames and smoke toward the center (cf. broadcast burning). See also: ignition pattern
centipoise (cP) centipoise Centipoise centipoise Standard unit of viscosity equal to 0.01 poise (cP). Example: Water at 20°C has a viscosity of 1.002 cP (cf. viscosity).
centrifugal pump bomba centrifuga Kreiselpumpe pompe centrifuge A pump which expells water by centrifugal force through the ports of a circular impeller, rotating at high speeds. With this type of pump, the discharge line may be shut off while the pump is running
chain lightning rayo Blitz mit Verästelungen eclair Lightning in a long zigzag or apparently broken line
chain of command linea jerarquica Befehlskette organisation du commandement The order of rank and authority in the fire organization. An example of the line function chain of command on a wildfire is: fire boss, line boss, division boss, sector boss, crew boss, squad boss, and firefighter
char zona quemada Verkohltes Brennmaterial substance carbonisee, zone carbonisee Charred remains of wildland fuels
charcoal or solid phase Verkohlungsphase The presence of combustible vapours above the fuel (= carbonaceous material) is too low to support a persistent flame. The residual solid fuel or char burns away slowly.
charged line manguera en carga, tira humeda Wasser am Strahlrohr reseau sous pression A line of fire hose filled with water under pressure and ready to use
check line linea secundaria de defensa, linea secundaria perpendicular [Temporärer Sicherheitsschutzstreifen im rechten Winkel zur Hauptbekämpfungslinie] ligne laterale de securite Temporary fireline constructed at a right angle to the control main fireline, used to regulate the spread and intensity of a backfire (cf. control line)
check valve valvula antirretorno Rückschlagventil valve antiretour A valve that permits flow of liquid through a hose or pipe in one direction but prevents a return flow. Uses include the prevention of backflow on uphill hose lays, loss of prime with centrifugal pumps and chemical contamination in fire chemical mixing systems
chevron burn : quema controlada desde la cumbre, encendido desde la cumbre Sternfeuer brulage en chevron (ou en rateau) A prescribed burning technique used in hilly areas to fire ridge points or ridge ends. Lines of fire are started simultaneously from the apex of a ridge point, and progress downhill.
chinook Chinook Wind A foehn wind blowing down the eastern slopes of the Cascades, Rocky Mountains, and over the adjacent plains in the United States and Canada. In winter, this warm, dry wind causes snow to disappear with remarkable rapidity, and hence it has been nicknamed the "snoweater." In hot dry weather, Chinook winds can quickly extend fire weather conditions to the extreme
chlorofluorocarbon(s) (CFC)) Fluorchlorkohlenwasserstoffe (FCKW) Colourless, odourless gas(es) containing carbon, chlorine and fluorine (acronym: CFC), extremely stable in the troposphere, but unstable in the stratosphere. Decay products initiate ozone destruction in the stratosphere.
cirrus Zirruswolken A form of high cloud, composed of ice crystals, which often does not obscure the sun
Class A foam Schaumklasse A Foam intended for use on Class A or woody fuels; made from hydrocarbon-based surfactant, therefore lacking the strong filming properties of Class B foam, but possessing excellent wetting properties (see: class of fire).
Class B foam Schaumklasse B Foam designed for use on Class B or flammable liquid fires; made from fluorocarbon-based surfactants, therefore capable of strong filming action, but incapable of efficient wetting of Class A fuels (see: class of fire).
Class I area (air quality) Luftreingebiet In the U.S.A.: Geographic areas designed by the Clean Air Act where only a very small amount or increment of air quality deterioration is permissible. Class II Area: All areas of the country not designated Class I. A greater amount of air pollution can be added to these areas than Class I.
Class II area (air quality) U.S.A.: All areas of the country not designated Class I. A greater amount of air pollution can be added to these areas than Class I.
class of fire clases de incendios, for combustible o agente Brandklasse (1) allgemein; (2) Waldbrand types de feux (1) Class A- Fires involving ordinary combustible materials (such as wood, cloth, paper, rubber, and many plastics) requiring the heat absorbing (cooling) effects of water, water solutions, or the coating effects of certain dry chemicals, which retard combustion; Class B - Fires involving flammable or combustible liquids, flammable gases, greases, and similar materials where extinguishment is most readily secured by excluding air (oxygen), inhibiting the release of combustible vapors, or interrupting the combustion chain reaction; Class C - Fires involving live electrical equipment where safety to the operator requires the use of electrically nonconductive extinguishing agents; Class D - Fires involving certain combustible metals (such as magnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium, potassium, etc.) requiring a heat-absorbing extinguishing medium not reactive with burning metals. Fires are assigned to one of seven size classes: (2) Wildland fire size classification. Examples: USA (non-metric): Class A (<1/4 acre), Class B (l/4 - 10 acres), Class C (10 - 100 acres), Class D (100 - 300 acres), Class E (300 - 1000 acres), Class F (1000 - 5000 acres), Class G (>5000 acres); Russian Federation: All fires >200 ha are classified as "large" fires.
clean air act Reinluftverordnung A U.S. federal law enacted to insure that air quality standards are attained and maintained. Similar legislation is in place in other countries.
clean burn quema para despeje, quema de limpia Vollständige Verbrennung brulis a blanc Any fire, whether deliberately set or accidental, that consumes all above-ground vegetation and litter, along with the lighter slash so exposing the mineral soil.
clearing index Rauchverteilungsindex A derived value used to indicate smoke dispersal. Formula uses the depth of the mixing layer multiplied by the average wind speed for that layer, divided by 100.
climate Klima The prevalent or characteristic meteorological conditions of any place or region, and their extremes
clock method codigo del reloj, metodo del reloj Uhrzifferblattsystem methode de la montre (heures) Means of establishing a flight path to a target on a fire by referring to clock directions from the aircraft's present location, with the nose of the aircraft pointing at 12:00.
closed area zona con prohibiciones, area restringida Gesperrtes Gebiet, Sperrzone zone interdite An area in which specified activities or entry are temporarily restricted by agency legislation to reduce risk of human-caused fire. In some jurisdictions a closed area is called a restricted travel zone or a restricted fire zone.
closure limitacion legal, restriccion legal Beschränkung, Restriktion saison de femmeture, restriction d’usage Legal restriction but not necessarily elimination of specified activities such as smoking, camping, or entry that might cause fires in a given area.
cloud Wolke A visible mass of liquid droplets suspended in the atmosphere above Earth's surface. Clouds form in areas where air rises and cools. The condensing water vapor forms small droplets of water that, when combined with other droplets, form clouds. Clouds can form along warm and cold fronts, where air flows up the side of the mountain and cools as it rises higher into the atmosphere, and when warm air blows over a colder surface, such as a cool body of water. Clouds fall into two general categories: sheetlike or layer-looking stratus clouds (stratus means layer) and cumulus clouds (cumulus means piled up). These two cloud types are divided into four more groups that describe the clouds' altitude.
cloudy nuboso bewölkt nuageux Adjective class representing the degree to which the sky is obscured by clouds. In weather forecast terminology, expected cloud cover of about 0.7 or more warrants use of this term. In the National Fire Danger Rating System (USA) 0.6 or more cloud cover is termed „cloudy“.
cold front Kaltfront The leading edge of a relatively cold air mass which moves in such a way that cold air displaces warmer air. The heavier cold air causes some of the warm air to be lifted. If the lifted air contains enough moisture, cloudiness, precipitation and even thunderstorms may result. In case both air masses are dry there may be no cloud formation.
cold trailing enfriamiento del borde Nachlöschen verification des points en ignition see: fire suppression
colonizer Pionier-Arten Species of vegetation that establish on a burned (or otherwise denuded) site from seed.
combination nozzle lanza chorro-niebla, piton de combinacion Mehrzweckstrahlrohr lance (a incendie) reglable A multi-purpose nozzle designed to provide either a solid stream or a fixed spray pattern suitable for extinguishing wildfires or flammable liquid fires.
combination nozzle tip boquilla chorro niebla, boquilla de combinacion Kombinationsstrahlrohr ajutage de lance mixte Two attached straight stream nozzle tips of different orifice size used to increase or restrict water flow designed to provide either a solid stream or a fixed spray pattern suitable for applying water, wet water or foam solution.
combustibility Brennbarkeit Relative ease of fire spread in a given fuel under controlled conditions. Combustibility of a fuelbed is characterised quantitatively by the basic rate of spread of a steady straight line fire front that is measured on a horizontal fuelbed in the absence of wind.
combustion combustion Verbrennung combustion Consumption of fuels by oxidation, evolving heat and generally flame (neither necessarily sensible) and/or incandescence. Combustion can be divided into four phases: preignition (or preheating), flaming, smoldering, and glowing.
combustion efficiency Verbrennungseffizienz The relative amount of time a fire burns in the flaming phase of combustion, as compared to smoldering combustion. A ratio of the amount of fuel that is consumed in flaming combustion compared to the amount of fuel consumed during the smoldering phase, in which more of the fuel material is emitted as smoke particles because it is not turned into carbon dioxide and water.
combustion period periodo de combust ion Verbrennungszeit puree de combustion Total time required for a specified fuel component to be completely burned (cf. Burn-Out Time)
combustion rate Verbrennungsgeschwindigkeit Rate of heat release per unit of burning area per unit of time (syn. reaction intensity).
command direccion Oberbefehl, Aufsicht commandement The act of directing, ordering, and/or controlling firefighting forces by virtue of explicit legal, administrative, or delegated authority.
command post (cp) puesto de mando Befehlszentrale, Leitstelle, Befehlsstelle poste de commandement The location from which all fire operations are directed. There is normally only one command post for each fire situation or other incident.
command team equipo de mando, personal de mando Einsatzleitung equipe de commandement A group of personnel to include as a minimum an incident commander, section chiefs, SITSTAT leader, RESTAT leader, and communications unit leader trained and available to command a FIRESCOPE incident command system incident in the core area (ICS).
commercial forest land monte productor, terreno forestales productivos Erwerbswald foret de production Land that is producing, or is capable of producing, crops of industrial wood and not withdrawn from timber use by statute or administrative regulation.
commissary [puesto de venta], [pulperia] Kantinenartikel depot de vivres, menager et vetements de travail Supply of items such as candy, tobacco products, toilet items, and work clothes that are made available for sale to firefighters working on a wildfire.
communications officer encargado de comunicaciones Fernmelder, Fernmeldeoffizier officier de liaison Person responsible for installing, operating, and maintaining the communication service needed for fire suppression. Supervises communication traffic, technicians, operators, and messengers.
communications unit unidad movil de comunicaciones Fermeldeeinheit unite de liaison A facility used to provide the major part of an incident communications center (ICS).
Community-Based Fire Management (CBFiM) [Feuermanagement auf kommunaler Ebene unter Einbeziehung der oertlichen Bevoelkerung] Fire management approach based on the strategy to include local communities in the proper application of land-use fires (managed beneficial fires for controlling weeds, reducing the impact of pests and diseases, generating income from non-timber forest products, creating forage and hunting, etc.), wildfire prevention, and in preparedness and suppression of wildfires. CBFiM approaches can play a significant role in fire management, especially in most parts of the world where human-based ignitions are the primary source of wildfires that affect livelihood, health and security of people. The activities and knowledge communities generally practice are primarily those associated with prevention. They include planning and supervision of activities, joint action for prescribed fire and fire monitoring and response, applying sanctions, and providing support to individuals to enhance their fire management tasks. Communities can be an important, perhaps pivotal, component in large-scale fire suppression, but should not be expected to shoulder the entire burden.
compactness Kompaktheitsgrad The spacing between fuel particles. This can be especially important in the surface layer of fuels, where the amount of air circulation affects rate of drying, rate of combustion, etc. (syn. Fuel Compactness).
compressed air foam systems A generic term used to describe foam systems consisting of an air compressor (or air source), a water pump, and foam solution.
computed gross weight peso maximo al despegue, peso bruto calculado Berechnetes Höchstfluggewicht (für Helikopter) poids brut calcule [Helicopter] Term used in calculating permissible payload for helicopters. Computed gross weight is the maximum computed gross weight, from performance charts, at which a helicopter is capable of hovering in ground effect or hovering out of ground effect at stated density altitude (computed gross weight for hovering out of ground effect is less than that for hovering in ground effect).
condensation Kondensation The process by which a gas becomes a liquid.
condensation nucleus Kondensationskern Particle accelarating the act of reducing a gas or a vapour to a liquid or a solid form.
condition of vegetation estado de la vegetacion, condicion de la vegetacion Brennbarkeit der Vegetation état végétatif (et sensibilité au feu) Stage of growth, or degree of flammability of vegetation that forms part of a fuel complex. The term herbaceous stage is at times used when referring to herbaceous vegetation alone. In grass areas minimum qualitative distinctions for stages of annual growth are usually green, curing, and dry or cured.
conduction conduccion Wärmeleitung, Wärmeableitung conduction Heat transfer through a solid material from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature (see: heat transfer).
confine a fire rodear un incendio Begrenzen der Feuerausbreitung controler un feu The least aggressive wildfire suppression strategy, typically allowing the wildland fire to burn itself out within determined natural or other existing boundaries such as rocky ridges, streams, and possibly roads.
conflagration incendio catastrofico, conflagracion Waldbrandkatastrophe, Grossfeuer, Grosswaldbrand conflagration - feu catastrophique (embrasement generalise) (1) A popular term for a large, fast-moving wildfire exhibiting many or all of the features associated with extreme fire behaviour; (2) A raging destructive fire. Often used to denote such a fire with a moving front as distinguished from a fire storm (cf. blow-ip, extreme fire behavior, mass fire).
conflagration threat peligro extremo, peligro de conflagracion Gefahr einer Waldbrandkatastrophe menace de feu catastrophique The likelihood that wildfire capable of causing high damage will occur.
constant fire danger peligro basico, factor de peligro constante Konstante Faktoren der Waldbrandgefährdung danger permanent d’incendie The resultant of all fire danger factors that are relatively unchanging in a given area, e.g. values at risk, topography, fuel type, exposure to prevailing wind (cf. variable fire danger).
contain a fire ataque a un incendio, contener un incendio Feuer eingrenzen circonscrire un incendie, circonscrire un incendie (=feu) A moderately aggressive wildfire suppression strategy which can reasonably be expected to keep the fire within established boundaries of constructed firelines under prevailing conditions.
containment Feuer eingrenzen Completion of a control line around a fire and any associated spot fires which can reasonably be expected to stop the fire's spread.
continental climate clima continental Kontinentalklima climat continental The climate that is characteristic of the interior of a land mass of continental size. Marked by large annual daily and day-to-day ranges of temperature, low relative humidity and irregular rainfall.
continuity of fuels cf. fuel continuity
control a fire controlar un incendio Feuer unter Kontrolle bekommem maitriser un incendie To complete control line around a fire, any spot fires therefrom, and any interior islands to be saved; burn out any unburned area adjacent to the fire side of the control lines; and cool down all hot spots that are immediate threats to the control line, until the line can reasonably be expected to hold under foreseeable conditions.Stages of Control are: (1) Out of Control - Describes a wildfire not responding or only responding on a limited basis to suppression action such that perimeter spread is not being contained (syn. "Not Under Control"); (2) Being Held - Indicates that with currently committed resources, sufficient suppression action has been taken that the fire is not likely to spread beyond existent or predetermined boundaries under prevailing and forecasted conditions (syn. Partial Control); (3) Being Observed - Currently not receiving suppression action, due to agency resource management objectives and/or priorities; (4) Under Control - Having received sufficient suppression action to ensure no further spread of the fire: (5) Being Patrolled - In a state of mop-up, being walked over and checked; (6) Out – Having been extinguished.
control force medios de extincion, recursos de control Feuerlöschkräfte moyens de lutte Personnel and equipment used to control a fire.
control line linea de defensa, linea de control Bekämpfungslinie, Auffanglinie, Sicherungslinie, Kontollstreifen ligne d’extinction Comprehensive term for all constructed or natural barriers and treated fire edges used to control a fire (cf. check line, firebreak, fireline, fuelbreak, scratch line, secondary line).
control time tiempo de control (1) Gesamte Dauer der Brandbekämpfung, (2) Zeitpunkt Feuer unter Kontrolle temps pour maitriser (1) Elapsed time from the first work on a fire until holding the control line is assured (sometimes still measured only from the time of containing a fire); (2) the time a fire is declared controlled.
controlled Unter Kontrolle The completion of control line around a fire, any spot fires therefrom, and any interior islands to be saved; burned out any unburned area adjacent to the fire side of the control lines; and cool down all hot spots that are immediate threats to the control line, until the lines can reasonably be expected to hold under the foreseeable conditions.
controlled burning Outdated term which had been used instead of the term Prescribed Burning (cf. prescribed burning)
convection conveccion Konvektion convection Vertical air movements resulting in the transport of atmospheric properties. In meteorology, atmospheric motions that are predominantly vertical; i.e., usually upward (cf. advection, see: heat transfer).
convection column columna convectiva, columna de conveccion Konvektionszelle colonne de convection The rising column of gases, smoke, fly ash, particulates, and other debris produced by a fire. The column has a strong vertical component indicating that buoyant forces override the ambient surface wind.
convective activity actividad convectiva Konvektive Aktivität perturbations General term for manifestations of convection in the atmosphere, alluding particularly to the development of convective clouds and resulting weather phenomena, such as showers, thunderstorms, squalls, hail, tornadoes, etc.
convective wind/storm Konvektiver Wind / Sturm (1) All winds (up, down, or horizontal) that have their principal origins in local temperature differences; (2) storm with strong vertical air mass movements.
convective-lift fire phase fase convectiva Konvektiv-angehobene Phase des Feuers phase de convection d’un feu The phase of a fire when most of the emissions are entrained into a definite convection column
convergence Konvergenz; Zusammenlaufen Merging together of horizontal air currents, or approaching a single point, such as at the center of a low pressure area producing a net inflow of air; the excess air is removed by rising air currents; expansion of the rising air above a convergence zone results in cooling, which in turn often gives condensation (clouds) and sometimes precipitation
convergence zone Konvergenzzone (1) The area of increased flame height and fire intensity produced when two or more fire fronts burn together; (2) in fire weather, that area where two winds come together from opposite directions and are forced upwards often creating clouds and precipitation.
conversion burning Feuer mit dem Ziel zur Änderung des Landnutzungstyp (1) In forestry, prescribed burning an area where brush has excluded forest reproduction to prepare the area for tree planting; (2) in land-use change, the burning of native (primary, secondary) or invaded vegetation for establishment of agricultural crops, pasture land, or plantations.
cool fire “Kaltes” Feuer Popular for low-intensity fires.
cool season burning Brennen in der nass-kalten Jahreszeit Use of prescribed fire outside the fire season for generating low-intensity (low-impact) fires in order to achive vegetation management goals.
cooperating agency organismo colaborador Zusammenarbeitende Dienststelle (Behörden,Ämter) organismes associes Agency supplying assistance other than direct suppression, rescue, support, or service function to the incident control effort (e.g., Red Cross, Law Enforcement Agency, Telephone Company) (ICS).
Cooperative Fire Protection [US Eigenname für kooperativen Waldbrandschutz] A staff unit within the branch of State and Private Forestry or Aviation and Fire Management in the National Forest System, USDA Forest Service
cooperator colaborador Beauftragter (Sub-) Unternehmer cooperative ou collaborateur Local agency or person outside the fire control organization who has agreed in advance to perform specified fire control services and has been properly instructed to give such service.
coordinates Koordinaten (nach Längen- und Breitengrade) The intersection of lines of reference, usually expressed in degrees/minutes/seconds of latitude and longitude, used to determine or report position or location.
coordination center Koordinationszentrum Any facility that is used for the coordination of agency or jurisdictional resources in support of one or more incidents.
cost sharing agreements Vereinbarung über die Kostenaufteilung Agreements between agencies or jurisdictions to share designated costs related to incidents. Cooperative Fire Protection Agreements with States, agencies, and jurisdictions outline the procedures for cost sharing.
council tool Feuerrechen Long-handled combination rake and cutting tool, the blade of which is constructed of a single row of three or four sharpened teeth (syn. rich tool).
count down cuenta atras, cuenta regresiva Abzählen compte a rebours As used in air tanker drops, a "ten" down to "one" reverse count on a called shot starting approximately 1/2 mile from the target.
counter fire contrafuego auxiliar Gegenfeuer (zusätzliches) contre feu Fire set between main fire and backfire to hasten spread of backfire. The act of setting counter fires is sometimes called front firing or strip firing (syn. Draft fire).
coupling racor, copla Schlauchkupplung raccord A device that serves to connect the ends of adjacent hoses or other components of a hose-lay.
cover Bodenbedeckung (mit Pflanzen und anderem Brennmaterial) The area on the ground covered by the aerial parts of plants and other combustible material, expressed as a percent of the total area.
cover type tipo de cubierta, vegetal Vegetationstyp type de couvert vegetal The designation of a vegetation complex described by dominant species, age, and form.
coverage level Benetzungsfläche (für Löschmittelabwurf) Recommended amount of aerially applied retardant (keyed to fuel models and/or fire behavior models).
creeping (fire) incendio poco violento, incendio superficial de baja intensidad Langsames, kriechendes Feuer feu rampant see: fire behaviour
crew Löschtrupp An organized group of firefighters under the leadership of a crew boss or other designated official.
crew boss jefe de cuadrilla, jefe de brigada Löschtruppführer chef d’equipe A person in supervisory charge of usually 5 to 30 firefighters and responsible for their performance, safety, and welfare.
criteria pollutants Kritische Luftschadstoffe Those air pollutants designated by national environmental protection agencies as potentially harmful and for which ambient air standards have been set to protect the public health and welfare. The criteria pollutants are carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, particulate, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, hydrocarbons and lead.
critical burning period see: burning period
critical burnout time tiempo critico de combustion [Gesamte Zeit, die Brennmaterial Energie kritisch für die Ausbreitung eines Feuers liefern kann] temps de combusion critique Total time a fuel can burn and continue to feed energy to the base of a forward-travelling convection column.
cropland fires Verbrennen von Ernterückständen Fire used for disposal of non-utilizable phytomass in agricultural and grassland systems.
cross bearing/cross shot interseccion de visuales Kreuzpeilung point d’intersection Intersecting lines of sight from two or more points on the same object; used to determine the location of a wildfire from lookouts.
crown closure Kronenschlußgrad The spacing between tree crowns; usually expressed as the percent of area covered by tree crowns in the forest canopy region as viewed from above.
crown consumption Verbrennung der Baumkrone Combustion of the twigs, and needles or leaves of a tree during a fire.
crown cover proyeccion horizontal de la copa, cobertura de copa Kronenprojektion, Überschirmung projection verticale du houppier The ground area covered by the crown of a tree as delimited by the vertical projection of its outermost perimeter.
crown fire fuego de copas, incendio de copas Kronenfeuer, Wipfelfeuer feu de cimes see: forest fire
crown fuel Brennmaterial im Kronenraum The standing and supported forest combustibles not in direct contact with the ground that are generally only consumed in crown fires (e.g., foliage, twigs, branches, cones) (syn. aerial fuel; cf. ground fuel, surface fuel, ladder fuel).
crown out pasar a las copas, coronar Übergang zum Kronenfeuer feu de cimes With reference to a forest fire, to change from a surface fire into a crown fire that may intermittently ignite tree crowns or continuously consume tree crowns as the fire continues to advance.
crown scorch soflamar las copas, chamuscado de copas Versengung der Krone; Kronenversengung dessechement foliaire Browning of the needles or leaves in the crown of a tree or shrub caused by heat from a fire.
crowning (fire) Übergang zum Kronenfeuer see: fire behaviour (cf. crown fire under forest fire).
crowning potential Kronenfeuerpotential A probability that a crown fire may start, calculated from inputs of foliage moisture content and height of the lowest part of the tree crowns above the surface.
cumulonimbus Kumulonimbus-Wolken The ultimate growth of a cumulus cloud into an anvil shape, with considerable vertical growth, usually fibrous ice crystal tops, and probably accompanied by lightning, thunder, hail, and strong winds.
cumulus Kumuluswolke A principal low cloud type in the form of individual cauliflower-like cells of sharp non-fibrous outline and less vertical development than cumulonimbus.
cumulus cap cloud Rauchwolke in Kumulusform A cumulus-like cloud formed a top of a plume of an extensive fire.
cup trench Auffanggraben für hangabwärts rollendes Brennmaterial A fireline trench on the downhill side of fire burning on steep slopes that is supposed to be built deep enough to catch rolling firebrands that could otherwise start fire below the fireline. A high berm on the outermost downhill side of the trench helps the cup trench catch material. Also called gutter trench.
cured Getrocknet Debris or herbaceous vegetation that has dried and lost its green color.
curing Trocknen, austrocknen Drying and browning of herbaceous vegetation or slash.
danger class grado de peligro, clase de peligro Gefahrenklasse classe de risque d’incendie Relative fire danger rating as determined from burning conditions and other variable factors of fire danger.
danger index indice de peligro Gefährdungsindex, Feuergefährdungsindex indice de risque, indice de danger d’incendie Relative number indicating the severity of fire danger as determined from burning conditions and other variable factors of fire danger (syn. fire danger index).
danger meter medidor de peligro, reglilla indicadora de clase de peligro [System zur Kalkulation des Gefährdungsindex] indicateur de risque Device for combining ratings of several variable factors into numerical classes of fire danger; the process of integration is termed fire danger rating.
danger table tablas de peligro [Tabelle zur Kalkulation des Gefährdungsindex] table de risque Tabular form of a danger meter.
dead fuel combustibles muertos Brennmaterial (abgestorben) combustibles morts Fuels with no living tissue in which moisture content is governed almost entirely by atmospheric moisture (relative humidity and precipitation), dry-bulb temperature, and solar radiation (cf. live fuel).
debris burning incendio originado por quemas de basuras y rastrojos Schlagabraumbrennen brulage de dechets incontrole (1) In fire suppression terminology (fire cause classification): a fire spreading from any fire originally ignited to clear land or burn residues; (2) in prescribed fire terminology: a fire used to dispose of scattered, piled, or windrowed dead woody fuel, generally in the absence of a merchantable overstory (cf. windrow burning).
Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) [Eigenname] Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP OLS): Spaceborne global night-time low light sensor for active fire detection (and other light sources). Information is provided 1-2 times per night.
Delayed Aerial Ignition Device (DAID) [Apparat zur Entzündung aus der Luft] An incendiary device producing a chemical reaction which when dropped from a flying aircraft will ignite after a predetermined elapsed time (cf. aerial ignition, Aerial Ignition Device, helitorch, ping-Pong ball system).
demobilization Demobilisierung The process of building down from a campaign fire, of returning crews, equipment, etc. to the places from which they were borrowed.
dendrochronology Dendrochronologie, Jahrringanalyse Scientific discipline and methodology concerned with dating and interpreting past events, particularly historic climate, climate variability and trends, and fire occurrence, based on the analysis of tree rings and fire scars.
dense layer cielo nuboso (n 4/8), nubosidad parcial Dichte Wolkenschicht (Bewölkungsgrad <4/8) couche nuageuse dense A layer of clouds whose ratio of dense sky cover to total sky cover is more than one-half [Meteorology].
dense sky cover cielo cubierto (n = 8/8) Dichte Wolkendecke couvert nuageux dense Sky cover that prevents detection of higher clouds or the sky above it [Meteorology].
depth of burn Tiefe der ausgebrannten Streu- oder Rohhumusauflage The reduction in forest floor thickness due to consumption by fire.
desiccant desecante [Austrocknungs-Herbizid] dessicant Chemical that, when applied to a living plant, causes or accelerates drying of its aerial parts; used to facilitate burning of living vegetation by substantially lowering fuel moisture content within a few hours.
designated control burn (DESCON) [Einstufung eines Wildfeuers zum kontrollierten Feuer] feux provoques „autorises“ A management procedure used in the Southern Region of the U.S. Forest Service, that permits designated personnel to accept specific wildfires as prescribed fires and handle them accordingly. Only the fires that are burning within a specified range of weather and fuel conditions, and that will contribute to meeting land management goals may be accepted as DESCON fires.
detection Entdeckung, Lokalisierung und Meldung von Feuer The process of discovering, rectifying, locating and reporting wildfires by ground, aerial, and spaceborne means.
detection aircraft avion de deteccion Überwachungsflugzeug avion de detection, d'observation An aircraft used solely for the purpose of discovering, locating, and reporting fires to a responsible fire protection agency.
dew point punto de rocio Taupunkt point de rosee Temperature to which a specified parcel of air must cool, at constant pressure and water vapour content, in order for saturation to occur. Fog forms at the dew point.
digital elevation model modelo digital para curvas de nivel Digitales Geländemodell modele altimetrique digital A set of points which defines the terrain as numbers for computer applications. This data may be used to draw contours, make orthophotos, slope maps, and drive fire models.
digital image Digitalbild An analog image that has been converted to numerical form so that it can be stored and used in a computer. False colour can be applied to the image. It is "false" because it represents an assigned, not an colour.
dilution Verdünnung, Abschwächung A control strategy used in managing smoke from prescribed fires in which smoke concentration is reduced by diluting it through a greater volume of air, either by scheduling during good dispersion conditions or burning at a slower rate.
direct attack ataque directo Direktangriff extinction directe see: fire suppression (cf. indirect attack)
direct protection area zona asignada de proteccion, area directa de proteccion Zuständigkeitsbereich (für die Feuerbekämpfung) zone de protection directe That area for which a particular fire protection organization has the primary responsibility for attacking an uncontrolled fire and for directing the suppression action. Such responsibility may develop through law, contract, or personal interest of the firefighting agent (e.g., a lumber operator). Several agencies or entities may have some basic responsibilities (e.g., private owner) without being known as the fire organization having direct protection responsibility.
discovery descubrimiento Feststellung eines Feuers decouverte Determination that a fire exists. In contrast to detection, location and reporting of a fire is not required.
discovery time tiempo para descubrir un fuego, tiempo de descubrimiento Verzugszeit zwischen Auftreten und Entdeckung des Feuers (periode) temps de decouverte Elapsed time from start of fire (known or estimated) until time of first discovery.
dispatch orden de salida, despacho Einsetzen, abteilen ordre d'intervention The act of ordering attack units and/or support units to respond to a fire.
dispatch center puesto de mando, central de operaciones Einsatzleitstelle centre d’intervention A facility from which resources are directly assigned to an incident.
dispatcher coordinador, despachador Leiter der Einsatzleitstelle, Zentralist coordonnateur A person employed to receive reports of discovery and status of fires, confirm their locations, take action promptly to provide the firefighters and equipment likely to be needed for control in first attack, send them to the proper place, and support them as needed.
dispersion contaminacion, dispersion Dispersion dispersion atmospherique (polluant) The decrease in concentration of airborne pollutants as they spread throughout an increasing volume of atmosphere.
disturbance Störung (instabile Wetterlage) [Meteorology] A weather system usually associated with clouds, rain and/or wind. [Ecology] Any ecological event that produces a significant change in the structure and dynamics of an ecosystem.
divergence Abweichung, Divergenz The expansion or spreading out of a horizontal wind field. Generally associated with high pressure and light winds.
division [division] Abschnittsgruppe division Establishment of more than one geographical area of fire suppression operation when the number of resources exceeds the span of control of the operations chief.
Dobson unit (DU) Dobson-Einheit The standard way to express ozone amounts in the atmosphere. One DU is 2.7 x 10^16 ozone molecules per square centimeter of an atmospheric column(cf. ozone).
double doughnut rollo doble Doppeltgerollter Schlauch double tourillon Two lengths of hose rolled side by side or a single length rolled into two small coils for convenient handling.
double female coupling [racor] doble hembra; copla hembra doble Kupplungsteil mit doppelseitigem Innengewinde raccord double femelle A hose-coupling device having two female swivel couplings to permit joining two male hose nipples of the same size and thread type when lines are laid with couplings in opposite or reverse directions.
double jacket hose manguera de doble capa Schlauch mit Doppelgewebe tuyau a deux plis Fire hose having two cotton or other fiber jackets outside the rubber lining or tubing.
double male coupling [racor] doble macho, copla macho doble Kupplungsteil mit doppelseitigem Aussengewinde raccord double male A hose-coupling device having two male thread nipples for connecting hose and for connecting two female couplings of the same diameter.
doughnut roll rollo de manguera Schlauchrolle rouleau tourillon Hose rolled up for easy handling, e.g. by having both couplings close together with the male thread protected by the swivel.
downloading reduccion de carga Reduzierung der Flugzeug-Zuladung allegement [Aviation] Calculated reduction in aircraft payload to provide a margin of flight safety, generally due to an increase in density altitude, or due to runway length or other reasons.
dozer tractor oruga Planierraupe bouteur Any tracked vehicle with a front mounted blade used for exposing mineral soil, e.g. for fireline construction.
dozer line linea de defensa construida con tractor Bekämpfungslinie (durch Planierraupe geschoben) ligne anti-feu ouverte au bouteur Fireline constructed by the front blade of a bulldozer (syn. tractor line).
draft aspiracion Ansaugen aspiration [Hydraulics] Drawing water from a static water source into a pump which is above the level of the water supply, accomplished by removing air from the pump and allowing atmospheric pressure to push water through a noncollapsible hose into the pump (syn. suction).
draft fire see: counter fire
drain time Abfließen, Ablaufen, Abfliesszeit The time (minutes) it takes for foam solution to drop out from the foam mass; for a specified percent of the total solution contained in the foam to revert to liquid and drain out of the bubble structure. The time it takes for foam solution to drop out from the foam mass; for a specified percent of the total solution contained in the foam to revert to liquid and drain out of the bubble structure.
draped fuels combustibles colgantes Brennmaterial (hängend) combustibles perches Needles, leaves, and twigs that have fallen from tree branches and have lodged on lower branches or brush. A part of aerial fuels.
drift arrastre, desplazamiento Drift; Abtrift derive Effect of wind on smoke, retardant drops, paracargo, smokejumper streamers, etc.
drift smog pluma de humo, columna de humo desp~ada Rauchschleier fumee trainante, trainee de fumee Smoke that has drifted from its point of origin and became a mixture consisting of liquid particles dispersed in a gaseous medium (smoke and fog).
drift smoke Rauch (abgedriftet) Smoke that has drifted from its point of origin and is no longer dominated by convective motion. Generally considered to be the smoke lingering in an area or the smoke transported downwind which cannot be traced back to the burn site by tracking the main plume.
drip torch antorcha de goteo Feuerkanne, Flammgerät, Brennstofffackel torche a goutte a goutte A hand-held apparatus for igniting prescribed fires and backfires by dripping flaming fuel on the materials to be burned. The device consists of a fuel fount, burner arm, and igniter. Fuel used is generally a mixture of 65-80% diesel and 20-35% gasoline (cf. burning torch).
drizzle llovizna Nieseln bruine Precipitation composed exclusively of water drops smaller than 0.5 mm diameter.
drop configuration Abwurfkonfiguration The type of aerial drop of fire suppressant (water, retardants, foam) selected to cover the target. Terms which specify drop configuration include: "Salvo Drop" (entire load), "Trail Drop" (tanks in sequence), "Single or Double Door Drop" (partial load).
drop pass pasada para descargar, pasada para lanzamient0 Überflug mit Abwurf passage de largage Indicates that the airtanker has the target in sight and will make the retardant or water drop on this run over the target (syn. wet run, cf. dry run).
drop pattern Abwurfmuster The distribution of an aerially delivered retardant drop on the target area in terms of its length, width, and momentum (velocity x mass) as it approaches the ground. The latter determines the relative coverage level of the fire retardant on fuels within the pattern (syn. pattern).
drop zone Abwurfgebiet Target area for airtankers, helitankers, cargo dropping.
drought Trockenheit, Dürre A period of relatively long duration with substantially below-normal precipitation, usually occurring over a large area.
drought code (DC) codigo de sequia, valor de sequia Trockenheits-Code code d’aridite, nombre d’aridite see: under Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index Table
drought index code d’aridite, nombre d’aridite Trockenheitsindex indice de secheresse A numerical rating of representing the net effect of evapotranspiration and precipitation in producing cumulative moisture depletion in deep duff or upper soil layers.
dry adiabatic lapse rate gradiente adiabatico Trockenadiabatisches Temperaturgefälle gradient adiabatique de secheresse [Meteorology] Rate of decrease of temperature with height of a parcel of dry air ascending in the atmosphere without mixing or heat exchange, numerically equal to about 1°C per 100 metres. Conversely, dry air descending in the atmosphere warms at the same rate.
dry deposition Trockene Deposition Removal of contents of air masses onto a substrate without involvement of rain, clouds or fog.
dry hydrant Hydrant Permanent devices with fire engine threads attached to expedite drafting operations in locations where there are water sources suitable for use in fire suppression (e.g., piers, wharves, bridges over streams, highways adjacent to ponds); also permanently installed supply private fire pumps which depend upon suction sources (syn. suction pipe).
dry lightning storm Trockengewitter Thunderstorm in which negligible precipitation reaches the ground.
dry run pasada de reconocimiento Probeanflug; Trockenanflug passage de reconnaissance de reglage A trial pass over the target area by a lead plane and/or an airtanker to pinpoint target areas and warn ground personnel of the impending retardant or extinguishing agent drop (cf. drop pass, dummy run).
dry storage almacenamiento de retardante en polvo Trockenlagerung ehtreposage a sec Refers to dry chemical retardants in storage at air attack bases and available for mixing with water.
dry-bulb temperature temperatura del termometro seco, temperatura de bulbo seco Temperatur trockenes Thermometer temperature seche Air temperature. In the context of measuring relative air humidity: the temperature registered by the dry-bulb thermometer of a psychrometer.
drying regime condiciones de secado, regimen de secado Austrocknungregime regime de dessication The response of fuel moisture content to a cyclically varying temperature/relative humidity combination.
duff suelo vegetal Mull humus The layer of partially and fully decomposed organic materials lying below the litter (or moss) and immediately above the mineral soil. It corresponds to the fermentation (F) and humus (H) layers of the forest floor (cf. litter).
duff moisture code (DMC) Feuchtigkeitscode für Mull see: Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index Table
dummy run pasada de reconocimiento Probeanflug; Trockenanflug passage aerien de reconnaissance A simulated bombing run made on a target by the birddog/air tanker boss or airtanker. Used to indicate approach and target to airtanker and to check for flight hazards (cf. dry run).
early burning quema anticipada Kontrolliertes Brennen vor der Feuersaison brulage precoce Prescribed burning early in the dry season before the leaves and undergrowth are completely dry or before the leaves are shed, as an insurance against more severe fire damage later on.
early drop Abwurf von Löschmittel vor dem designierten Ziel Fire retardant landing before (in front of) designated target area.
economic fire protection theory teoria economica de la proteccion Theorie des Ökonomischen Feuerschutzes] theorie du moindre cout de la defense contre les incendies de foret A concept postulating that the object of protection is to minimize total cost (i.e. of fire prevention, fire presuppression, fire detection, fire suppression, fire damage) (cf. minimum-damage fire protection theory).
eddy remolino Wirbel, Leewirbel remous, contre courant A whirl or circling current of air or water, different and differentiated from the general flow, and brought about by pressure irregularities as in the downwind (lee) side of an obstacle.
edge Randstufe (1) The place where plant communities or successional stages or vegetative conditions within plant communities meet; (2) the boundary between two fairly distinct fuel types.
edge effect Randstufeneffekt Specific habitat conditions created at a place where plant communities or successional stages or vegetative conditions within plant communities meet.
edge firing quema desde el borde Randentzündung, Saumentzündung feu peripherique (perimetral) A method of broadcast burning in which fires are set along the edges of an area and allowed to spread inward.
eductor Zumischer A device used to introduce and mix fire chemical into a water stream. An eductor is a fitting with three ports, an inlet for water flow, an outlet for water flow, and an inlet for fire chemical concentrate. The flow of water through the eductor produces a region of lower pressure at the fire chemical inlet, drawing the chemical into the water stream.
effective windspeed Windgeschwindigkeit (um den Hangeffekt korrigiert) The midflame windspeed adjusted for the effect of slope on fire spread.
ejector eyector Saugstrahlpumpe ejecteur A syphon device used to fill an engine's tank when the water source is below or beyond the engine's drafting capability.
El-Niño-Southern-Oscillation (ENSO) [Eigenname] Interannual climate variability on a global scale caused by atmospheric-oceanic coupling. ENSO usually leads to extreme droughts and extreme wet periods in different parts of the world. ENSO droughts are associated with high land-use fire and wildfire activity, especially in the tropics.
elapsed time tiempo transcurrido Verzugszeit, Zeitverzug periode de lutte contre l’incendie The difference in time between the beginning of any action and its actual accomplishment; in fire fighting operations it is customarily divided into: (1) Discovery time: The period from start of a fire (estimated or known) until the time of discovery; (2) Report time: The period from discovery of a fire until the first person charged with initiating suppression action is notified of its existence and location; (3) Get-away time: The period from receipt of report of a fire by the first person responsible for suppression until departure of the initial attack force (syn. Response time); (4) Travel time: The period between departure of the initial attack force for a fire and its arrival at the fire; (5) Attack time: The period from receipt of first report of a fire to start of actual fire fighting; includes both get-away and travel time; (5) Control time: The period from initial attack until the fire is controlled: (6) Mop-up time: The period from achievement of control until enough work has been done to ensure the fire can not rekindle; (7) Patrol time: The period from completion of mop-up until the fire is declared out (cf. response time).
elapsed time standards tiempos normales, tiempo estandar [Standardvorgaben für Zeitverzug] duree de lutte The maximum amounts of time allowed by administrative rule for given steps of fire suppression.
element at risk (EAR) Gefährdetes Objekt Objects which may be damaged by an extreme event, i.e. the population, buildings and civil engineering works, economic activities, public services, utilities and infrastructure, environment, etc. exposed to hazard.
elevation Erhöhung The height of the terrain above mean sea level, usually expressed in meters.
elevation loss perdida de presion for altura Hochförderungsverlust perte de charge In hydraulics, the loss of pressure caused by raising water through hose or pipe to a higher elevation.
emergency emergencia Notfall, Notlage urgence [Fire] Any unexpected fire incident requiring immediate response by attack units and/or support units.
emergency firefighter Waldbrand-Bekämpfer, Feuerwehrmann (für Notfälle) Person employed as emergency worker on wildland fire which threatens damage to property. Hired for the duration of the emergency only.
emergency operations plan Notfallplan The plan that each jurisdiction has and maintains for responding to appropriate hazards.
emission Emission Byproducts of combustion released to the atmosphere, mostly particulates and gases.
emission factor [factor de emision] Emissionsfaktor facteur d’emission The quantity of gas or particulate matter produced as a function of the amount of organic matter consumed by burning, expressed in grams of gas or particulate produced per kilogram of organic matter (dry weight) consumed by fire.
emission rate [velocidad de emision], tasa de emision Emissionsrate taux d’emission The amount of gas or particulate matter released per units of time, fuel consumed and emission factor.
energy release component componente de intensidad de reaccion, componente de: desprendimiento calorico Energiefreisetzung composant de l’energie liberable, taux de liberation d’energie The computed total heat release per unit area (Kilo Joules per square meter - kJ/m2) within the flaming front at the head of a moving fire (cf. fuel energy available for convection).
engine Tanklöschfahrzeug (zur Unterstützung) Any ground vehicle providing specified levels of pumping, water, and hose capacity but with less than the specified level of personnel.
enhancement burn Kontrolliertes Brennen im Rahmen der Landschaftspflege Prescribed fire for landscape management (including for recreation and aesthetic purposes).
entrapment Eingeschlossen (Feuerfalle) A situation where a person is in an unexpected fire behavior situation. It is a life-threatening position where planned escape routes or safety zones are absent, inadequate, or compromised.
environmental lapse rate gradiente termico vertical Temperaturgradient decroissance altitudinale de temperature The rate of decrease of temperature with elevation.
episode Luftverschmutzungs-Episode [Air pollution] A condition of poor contaminant dispersion which may result in concentrations considered potentially harmful to health or welfare. Episodes may also occur during periods of fairly good dispersion if the source of air contaminants is extremely large.
equilibrium moisture content (EMC) humedad de equilibrio Feuchtigkeitsgehalt im Gleichgewichtszustand humidité a l’air The level at which dead fuels neither gain nor lose moisture with time, under specific constant temperature and humidity. The water vapour pressure in the air is equal to the vapour pressure in the fuel. A fuel particle, at EMC, will have no net exchange of moisture with its environment.
equipment use fire incendio originado por motores y maquinas [Klassifizierung der Waldbrandursache: Maschinen (ausser Eisenbahn)] feu de machine Fire caused by mechanical equipment other than railroad operations.
escape route camino de escape, via de escape Fluchtweg itineraire (de secours, de sauvetage, de repli) A preplanned and clear visible route firefighters take to move to a safety zone or other low-risk area. When escape routes deviate from a defined physical path, they should be clearly marked (flagged).
escaped fire incendio que desborda el ataque inicial, incendio escapado Ausser Kontrolle geratenes Feuer feu non controle (initiallement), (lors de la premiere attaque) Fire which has exceeded or is expected to exceed initial attack capabilities or prescription.
evaporation Evaporation The transformation of a liquid to its gaseous state; heat is released by the liquid during this process.
expansion Ausdehnung (Schaumlöschmittel) The ratio of the volume of the foam in its aerated state to the original volume of the non-aerated foam solution.
exposure (1) bienes amenazados, (2), (3) exposicion (1) Nachbarschaftsgefahr; (2) Exposition; (3)Lage rayon d’exposition, exposition (1) Property that may be endangered by a fire burning in another structure or by a wildfire; (2) Cardinal direction toward which a slope faces (syn. Aspect); (3) General surroundings of a site, with special reference to openness, wind, and insolation.
exposure fire [incendio de propagacion], incendio por exposicion Brand durch Ansteckung feu induit Classification for a fire not originating in a building, but which ignites building(s).
exposure time [Zeitraum der Exponierung durch Feuer] The time a specified point in a burn is subjected to elevated temperatures, generally above a threshold of 60°C.
extended attack Ausgedehnte Brandbekämpfung A suppression action that extends beyond initial attack.
extended attack incident [Feuersituation, die eine Bekämpfung über den Erstangriff hinaus erfordert] A wildland fire that has not been contained or controlled by initial attack forces and for which more firefighting resources are arriving, en route, or being ordered by the initial attack incident commander. Extended attack implies that the complexity level of the incident will increase beyond the capabilities of initial attack incident command.
external load carga exterior Aussenlast charge exterieure A load that is carried or extends outside of the aircraft fuselage.
extinction Löschen The extinguishment of a fire.
extinguishing agent agente extintor Löschmittel agent d’extinction A substance used to put out a fire by cooling the burning material, blocking the supply of oxygen, or chemically inhibiting combustion.
extra burning period [dia extra en que continua el incendio] [zusätzliche 24-stündige Brennperiode eines laufenden Feuerereignisses] periode de continuation de feu For any particular fire which is neither contained nor controlled, any 24-hour period following the termination of the first burning period.
extra fire fighters [zusätzliche rekrutierte Feuerwehrleute] Personnel other than regular employees or seasonally employed crews, hired on a casual basis to work on fires or provide man-up for short-term preparedness.
extreme fire behaviour [comportamiento extremo] Extremes Feuerverhalten comportement extreme du feu A level of fire behaviour that often precludes any fire suppression action. It usually involves one or more of the following characteristics: high rate of spread and frontal fire intensity, crowning, prolific spotting, presence of large fire whirls, and a well-established convection column. Fires exhibiting such phenomena often behave in an erratic, sometimes dangerous, manner. (cf. blow-up, conflagration, fire storm, mass fire).
FARSITE [Eigenname eines GIS-integrierten Computerprogramms; USA] A computer-based fire simulation program, developed in the USA, that can be integrated with GIS.
feeling for fire [BUSCAR PUNTOS CALIENTES AL TACTO], PALPAR PUNTOS CALIENTES Handprobe PROSPECTION DES BRAISES Examining burned material after the fire is apparently out and feeling with the bare hands to find any live embers.
female coupling RACOR HEMBRA, COPLA HEMBRA Kupplungsteil mit Innengewinde RACCORD FEMELLE Hose coupling made to receive a male coupling of the same thread, pitch and/or diameter.
fermentation layer (f-layer) Fermentierungs-Horizont The top layer of duff directly below the litter and above the humus, comprised of partially decomposed organic matter whose origins can still be vissually determined (cf. litter).
final run Letzter Anflug A live fire bombing run where the pilot intends to drop the load; also applies to cargo dropping.
fine fuel Leichtes, schnell entzündliches Brennmaterial Fast-drying dead fuels, generally characterized by a comparatively high surface area-to-volume ratio, which are less than 0.5 cm in diameter and have a timelag of one hour or less. These fuels (grass, leaves, needles, etc.) ignite readily and are consumed rapidly by fire when dry. (cf. flash fuel, medium fuel, heavy fuel).
fine fuel moisture HUMEDAD DEL COMBUSTIBLE LIGERO Feuchtigkeitsgehalt des schwaches Brennmaterials (Zeitverzugsklasse kleiner oder gleich 1 Stunde) TENEUR EN EAU DES PETITS COMBUSTIBLES (FINS) The measured moisture content of fast-drying fuels which have a time lag constant of one hour or less. Includes grass, leaves, ferns, tree moss, draped pine needles, and small twigs.
fine fuel moisture code (FFMC) see: Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index Table
fine particulate matter Luftpartikel kleiner als 10-15 micron Particles of less than 10-15 µm (microns) in size. Fine particles have longer residence time in the atmosphere, are more harmful to health and have greater impact on visibility than larger particles. "Inhalable particulate" matter are those particles less than 10 microns in diameter. "Respirable particulate" matter are those particles less than 2.5 µm in size. Respirable particulates have an especially long residence time in the atmosphere and penetrate deeply into lungs. Particles from smoke are primarily in the respirable size range. Aerosol is often used interchangeably (cf. aerosol).
finger (of a fire) DEDOS DE UN INCENDIO Feuerzunge FEU (=INCENDIE) LANGUES DE FEU see: forest fire
fire Feuer Simultaneous release of heat, light, and flame, generated by the combustion of flammable material.
fire adaptation Feueranpassung Common term for fire-resistant or fire-dependent plant and animal species.
fire agency SERVICIO DE INCENDIOS Behörde, zuständig fürBrandbekämpfung SERVICE D’INCENDIE An official group or organization compelled and authorized under statutes of law, the responsibility for controlling fires within a designated area or upon certain designated lands.
fire analysis ANALISIS DE UN INCENDIO Auswertung eines Feuerereignisses (ANALYSE) CRITIQUE D’UN INCENDlE A review of fire management actions taken with respect to a specific fire, group of fires, or a fire season, in order to identify reasons for effective and ineffective actions and to recommend, or prescribe ways and means of increasing efficiency.
fire atlas COLECCION DE MAPAS, MAPOTECA Feueratlas, Feuerkartierung ATLAS D’INCENDIES A systematic compilation of fire occurrence data ordered by time and space on a map or a geographic information system for fire management and policy planning and decision support.
fire authority AUTORIDAD EN EL INCENDIO Ermächtigung, Zuständigkeit zum Einsatz von Löschkräften AUTORITE CHARGEE DE LA LUTTE CONTRE LES INCENDIES The authorisation given to different levels of fire management to determine, adjudicate, or otherwise settle issues for the use, or co-ordination of use, of fire fighting resources.
fire beater Syn. fire swatter
fire behaviour COMPORTAMIENTO DEL FUEGO Feuerverhalten COMPORTEMENT DU FEU The manner in which fuel ignites, flame develops, and fire spreads and exhibits other related phenomena as determined by the interaction of fuels, weather, and topography. Some common terms used to describe fire behaviour include the following:Smouldering - A fire burning without flame and barely spreading.Creeping - A fire spreading slowly over the ground, generally with a low flame.Running - A fire rapidly spreading and with a well-defined head.Torching - Ignition and flare up of foliage of a single tree or a small clump of trees, usually from bottom to top (syn. Candling).Spotting - A fire producing firebrands carried by the surface wind, a fire whirl, and/or convection column that fall beyond the main fire perimeter and result in spot fires. Note: Solid Mass or Ember Transport under Heat Transfer.Crowning - A fire ascending into the crowns of trees and spreading from crown to crown. Note: Three classes of Crown Fire under Forest Fire (1).
fire behaviour forecast PREDICCION DEL COMPORTAMENTO DEL FUEGO Vorhersage des Feuerverhaltens PREVISION DE COMPORTEMENT DU FEU A prediction of probable fire behaviour in support of fire suppression or prescribed burning operations.
fire behaviour prediction model Modell zur Vorhersage des Feuerverhaltens A set of mathematical equations that can be used to predict certain aspects of fire behaviour when provided with an assessment of fuel and environmental conditions.
fire behaviour triangle [Dreiecksbeziehung des Feuerverhaltens] An instructional aid in which the sides of an equilateral triangle represent the three interacting components of the fire environment that are responsible for fire behaviour, i.e., fire weather, fuels, and topography (syn. fire environment triangle; cf. fire triangle).
fire belt CORTAFUEGO, FAJA AUXILIAR; CORTAFUEGO VERDE Brandschneise TRANCHEE PARE FEU A strip, cleared or planted with trees, maintained as a firebreak or fuelbreak.
fire benefits BENEFICIOS DEL FUECO [Positive Auswirkungen von Feuer] ASPECTS BENEFIQUES DU FEU Any effect(s) of fire that are favourable or beneficial in terms of the attainment of forest management and other land use objectives.
fire bombing Luftgestützte Feuerbekämpfung; Feuerlöschen aus der Luft An aerial attack operation involving the use of aircraft to drop suppressants or retardants to suppress or retard the spread of forest fires (cf. water bombing).
fire boss DIRECTOR TECNICO DEL INCENDIO, JEFE DE INCENDIO Einsatzleiter der Feuerbekämfung CHEF DE LUTTE, COMMANDANT AU FEU The person responsible for all fire suppression and service activities on a fire (cf. fire warden).
fire cache almacen de incendios, deposito de herramientas y equipos Stützpunkt bzw. Bevorratungslager für Löschgeräte eouipements de secours A supply of fire tools and equipment assembled in planned quantities or standard units at a strategic point for exclusive use in fire suppression.
fire camp Campamento de incendios Basislager bei der Waldbrandbekämpfung Camp principal, camp de base des poompiers A location equipped to provide service and support for firefighters and equipment being used to suppress a fire.
fire case histories Untersuchung zur Feuergeschichte An analytical and historical description of the development of a single fire event.
fire cause (fire cause class) clase de causas Ursache (Ursachengruppe) für die Entzündung eines Feuer classe de cause d’incendie cf. causes of fires
fire characteristics chart Kartierung der Eigenschaften eines Feuerereignisses A graphical means by which to display four properties of wildland fires: rate of spread, heat per unit area, fireline intensity, and flame length.
fire climate clima en relacion con el fuego Waldbrand-Wetterlage facteur climatique d’incendie The composite or generally prevailing weather conditions of a region, as temperature, air pressure, humidity, precipitation, cloudiness, and winds, over time that affect fire behaviour.
fire climax climax del fuego, climax vegetacional por fuego Feuerklimax pyroclimax A plant community at a stage of succession maintained by periodic .
fire code Gesetzliche Vorschriften zur Nutzung und Bekämpfung von Feuer Legal regulations pertaining to fire practices.
fire complex Feuerkomplex A cluster of fires that is too complicated to manage as individual events and is therefore administered as a single macro-unit.
fire concentration (1) concentrazione di incendi, (2) densita di incendi (2) Feuerhäufigkeit pro Bezugsfläche (2) densite des lncendies, concentration des lncendies (1) Generally, a situation in which numerous fires are burning in a locality; (2) more specifically, the number of fires per unit area or locality for a given period, generally a year.
fire control Ausschluss bzw. Bekämpfung von Feuer All activities concerned with protection of vegetation from fire (cf. fire exclusion, fire prevention, fire suppression).
fire cooperator COLABORADOR, COMBATIENTE CALABORADOR [Zusammenarbeitende Dienststelle bzw. Unternehmer zur Wahrnehmung von Aufgaben im Feuer-Management] AUXILIAIRE DES SERVICES D’INCENDIE A local person or agency, outside the fire management organization, who has agreed in advance to perform fire management services (e.g., prevention, detection, collection of fire weather data, suppression) and who has received prior training or instructions in giving such services.
fire crew CUADRILLA, BRIGADA Löschtrupp EQUIPE DE POMPIERS A general term for two or more firefighters organized to work as a unit (cf. suppression crew).
fire crew work formation Aufbau einer Feuerbekämpfungseinheit Standard crew arrangement used for fireline construction in indirect attack; consists of line locator, line cutters, rakers, torch operators, and mopup crew (cf. progressive method of line construction).
fire cycle ROTACION DE QUEMAS Feuerzyklus CYCLE DE FEU The number of years required to burn over an area equal to the entire area of interest (cf. fire frequency, fire interval).
fire damage PERDIDAS POR INCENDIOS Feuerschaden DOMMAGES D’INCENDIES Any effects of fire that are detrimental or damaging in terms of the attainment of forest management and other land use objectives (Note: for fire damages in plants and animals use fire Injury).
fire danger PELIGRO DE lNCENDIOS Brandgefahr RISQUE D’INCENDIE A general term used to express an assessment of both fixed and variable factors of the fire environment that determine the ease of ignition, rate of spread, difficulty of control, and fire impact; often expressed as an index.
fire danger class Brand- oder Feuergefahrenklasse A classification System of Fire Danger used in an index scale and identified by descriptive terms (e.g, Nil, Very Low, Low, Moderate, High, Very High, or Extreme), by numerical values (e.g., I, II, III, IV, or V), and/or by colour code (e.g., green, blue, yellow, orange, or red). The classification system may be based and depends on more than one fire danger index.
fire danger index Brandgefahren-Index A quantitative indicator of one or more facets of fire danger, expressed either in a relative sense or as an absolute measure; often used as a guide in a variety of fire management activities (e.g., to judge day-to-day preparedness and suppression requirements, as a basis for providing information on fire danger to the general public in fire prevention, as an aid to prescribed burning) (syn. danger index).
fire danger rating CALCULO DEL PELIGRO DE INCENDIOS, EVALUACION DEL PELIGRO DE INCENDIOS Einstufung, Berechnung von Feuergefahr EVALUATION DU RISQUE D’INCENDIE A component of a fire management system that integrates the effects of selected fire danger factors into one or more qualitative or numerical indices of current protection needs.
fire day FIRE DAY [Feuertag; 24 Stunden-Periode] JOUR DANGEREUX Standard 24-hour period beginning at 10 a.m., during which most wildfires undergo a predictable speeding up and slowing down of intensity, depending primarily on the influence of weather and fuel factors.
fire death Brandopfer Fire casualty which is fatal or becomes fatal within one year of the fire.
fire detection see: detection
fire devil see: fire whirl
fire discovery see: discovery
fire district [DISTRITO DE INCENDIOS], DISTRIT0 DE PROTECCION Ausrückbereich, Zuständigkeitsbereich, Feuerdistrikt DISTRICT DE PROTECTION CONTRE LES INCENDIES (1) [N.Am] A geographic subdivision of a state, province, territory or county which is under organized protection from forest fires. (2) [United Kingdom] An area covered by one jurisdiction for fire control purposes, as defined in working plans. Note: In Australia it generally has a precise, legal definition in each State. (3) [USA] A rural or suburban fire organization, usually tax supported, that maintains fire companies and apparatus. It is also called a fire protection district.
fire duty TRABAJO DE C0MBATE DE INCENDIOS Löscheinsatz SERVICE D’INCENDIE Actual physical engagement in firefighting service as distinguished from staff work at headquarters or maintenance division; work at an individual fire done by an individual firefighter or by a company.
fire ecology Feuerökologie The study of the relationships and interactions between fire, living organisms, and the environment.
fire edge BORDE DEL INCENDIO Feuerfront, Feuersaum LISIERE D’UN INCENDIE Any part of the boundary of a fire at a given moment (Note: The entire boundary is termed the fire perimeter)
fire effects EFECTOS DEL FUEGO Auswirkungen des Feuers, Brandwirkungen EFFETS DES INCENDIES Physical, biological, and ecological impacts of fire on the environment.
fire environment [AMBIENTE DEL FUEGO] Feuerumwelt [Umweltbedingungen, die das Verhalten des Feuers Bestimmen] ENVIRONNEMENT DU FEU The complex of surrounding conditions, influences, and modifying forces of topography, fuel, and weather that determine fire behaviour and impacts.
fire environment triangle Feuer-Umwelt- Dreieck A graphical representation, modelled on the fire triangle, to show the importance of fuel,. Weather, and topography on fire behaviour (cf. fire triangle, fire behaviour triangle, fire triangle).
fire exclusion Feuerausschluss Planned (systematic) protection of an ecosystem from any wildfire, including any prescribed fire, by all means of fire prevention and suppression in order to obtain management objectives (cf. fire control).
Fire Family Program [Eigenname eines Computerprogrammes] A computer program that uses historical weather data for fire planning.
fire fighting see: fire suppression
fire finder map Karte auf Feuerpeilgerät A map situated on a fire finder and used to establish the location of fires from a lookout (cf. alidade, bearing, osborne fire finder; fire plotting map).
fire flap syn. fire swatter
fire foam see: foam
fire free interval see: fire interval
fire frequency FRECUENCIA DE INCENDIOS Waldbrandhäufigkeit FREQUENCE DES INCENDIES The average number of fires or regularly occurring fire events per unit time in a designated area. (cf. fire cycle, fire interval).
fire front Feuerfront The part of a fire within which continuous flaming combustion is taking place. Unless otherwise specified, the fire front is assumed to be the leading edge of the fire perimeter. In ground fires, the fire front may be mainly smouldering combustion.
fire fundamentals triangle Feuerdreieck A graphical representation of the basic components of combustion: fuel, heat, and oxygen (syn. fire triangle)
fire growth Ausbreitung des Feuers, Feuerausbreitung (l) The evolution of a fire from ignition to self-sustaining propagation, and perhaps to other stages of development; (2) the growth of a fire's perimeter.
fire guard (1) VIGILANTE DE INCENDIOS, (2) CORTAFUEGO (1) Feuerwache; (2) Feuerbarriere (1) P0MPIER FORESTIER, POMPIER PATROUILLEUR, (2) BARRIERE ANTI-FEU (1) A general term for a firefighter, lookout, patrol, prevention guard, or other person directly employed for prevention and/or detection and suppression of fires (cf. fire warden); (2) [Canada] An artificial barrier constructed for the purpose of protecting a high-value area from fires and to provide a control line from which to carry out fire suppression. (cf. firebreak, fire warden).
fire hazard (1) PELIGROSIDAD DEL COMBUSTIBLE, (2) INFLAMABILIDAD (1) Feuergefährlichkeit, (2) Feuergefährdung RISQUE D’INCENDIE (1) A fuel complex, defined by volume, type, condition, arrangement, and location, that determines the degree both of ease of ignition and of fire suppression difficulty; (2) a measure of that part of the fire danger contributed by the fuels available for burning. Note: Is worked out from their relative amount, type, and condition, particularly their moisture contents (syn. hazard).
fire hazard index INDICE DE INFLAMABILIDAD, INDICE DE PELIGROSIDAD DEL COMBUSTIBLE Index der Feuergefährdung lNDICE DE RISQUE DE FEU A numerical rating for specific fuel types, indicating the relative probability of fires starting and spreading, and the probable degree of resistance to control; similar to burning index, but without effects of wind speed.
fire hazardous area ZONA DE PELIGRO Feuergefährdetes Gebiet ZONE SENSIBLE AUX INCENDIES Those wildland areas where the combination of vegetation, topography, weather, and the threat of fire to life and property create difficult and dangerous problems.
fire history Feuergeschichte The reconstruction and interpretation of the chronological record, causes and impacts of fire occurrence in an ecosystem in relation to changes of past environmental, cultural and socio-economic conditions. Fire history evidence is based on analysis of charcoal deposits in soils, sediments, and ice, dendrochronology (fire scar analysis), historical documents, and fire reports.
fire impact Impakt von Feuer The effect of fire on the ecosystem in terms of biophysical alterations (e.g., crown scorch, mineral soil exposure, depth of burn, fuel consumption).
fire incidence Feuervorkommen, Feuerhäufigkeit The average number of fires in a specified area during a specified time period.
fire information system Feuer-Informationssystem An information system designed to support fire management decisions. Advanced fire information systems integrate different sources of information required (e.g., vegetation conditions including fire history, topography, fire weather, fire behaviour models, real-or near-real time fire detection and monitoring data, fire management resources, infrastructures and pre-suppression information) on the base of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and allows real-time distribution or access via telecommunication.
fire injury DANOS PERSONALES POR INCENDIO, ACCIDENTE POR INCENDIO Feuerschaden BRULURE (1) A fire injury is a person suffered as the result of a fire that requires (or should require) treatment by a practitioner of medicine; (2) Also used to describe fire-damaged plants, e.g. fire scar, fire wound, or scorch.
fire intelligence Datenerhebung bzw. Aufklärung von Feuerinformation All infrastructures, communication, base data and other hard- and software that provide the inputs to an information and decision-support system in fire management.
fire intensity Feuerintensität A general term relating to the heat energy released in a fire (more specific term: cf. fireline intensity).
fire interval PERIOD0 SIN INCENDIOS Feuerintervall PERIODICITE DES INCENDIES The number of years between two successive fires documented in a designated area (i.e., the interval between two successive fire occurrences); the size of the area must be clearly specified (cf. fire cycle, fire frequency, fire free interval, return period).
fire investigation INVESTIGACION DE CAUSAS Untersuchung der Brandursache ENQUETE SUR LA CAUSE DU FEU A procedure undertaken to determine as a minimum, when, where, and how a fire started.
fire lane PISTA Zufahrtsweg für Feuerwehrfahrzeuge CHEMIN DE DEFENSE CONTRE L’INCENDIE Cleared path wide enough to permit single-lane vehicular access in a remote area.
fire load PESO DE LA CLASE DE PELIGRO, CARGA DE INCENDIO Feuerbelastung PONDERATION DU RISQUE D’INCENDIE The number and size of fires historically experienced on a given unit over a given period (usually one day) at a given index of fire danger.
fire lookout see: lookout
fire management PROTECCION CONTRA INCENDIOS, GESTION ORDENADA DEL FUEGO, MANEJO DEL FUEGO Feuer-Management AMENAGEMENT DE PROTECTION CONTRE LES INCENDIES All activities required for the protection of burnable forest and other vegetation values from fire and the use of fire to meet land management goals and objectives. It involves the strategic integration of such factors as a knowledge of fire regimes, probable fire effects, values-at-risk, level of forest protection required, cost of fire-related activities, and prescribed fire technology into multiple-use planning, decision making, and day-to-day activities to accomplish stated resource management objectives. Successful fire management depends on effective fire prevention, detection, and presuppression, having an adequate fire suppression capability, and consideration of fire ecology relationships.
fire management plan PLAN DE CONTROL DE INCENDIOS, PLAN DE MANEJO DEL FUEGO Feuer-Management-Plan PLAN DE DEFENSE C0NTRE L’INCENDIE (1) A statement, for a specific area, of fire policy and prescribed action; (2) The systematic, technological, and administrative management process of determining the organization, facilities, resources, and procedures required to protect people, property, and forest areas from fire and to use fire to accomplish forest management and other land use objectives (cf. fire suppression plan, preattack plan, pre-suppression planning).
fire management unit [Kleinste Flächeneinheit für die Feuer-Management-Planung] The smallest geographic entity used in prescribed fire planning, other than an individual burn block.
fire management zone Planungszone für das Feuer-Management A geographic unit used in prescribed fire planning; intermediary between a fire management unit (smaller) and a park, forest, district, etc. (larger).
fire model MODELO DE INCENDIO Feuerausbreitungsmodell, Waldbrandmodell SIMULATEUR DE FEU A computer model which, with given information, will predict the spread of fire as influenced by meteorological conditions, fuel characteristics, and topography.
fire model Feuer-Modell A computer program which, with given information, will predict the rate of spread of a fire from a point of origin.
fire occurrence INCENDIO OCURRIDO Auftreten von Waldbränden PROBABILITE DE FEU The number of fires started in a given area over a given period of time.
fire occurrence map MAPA DE INCENDIOS OCURRIDOS Waldbrandkartierung (1) CARTE DES FOYERS D’INCENDIE, (2) CARTE DES INCENDIES A map that shows by symbols the starting points of all fires for a given period.
fire pack EQUIPO PERSONAL CONTRA INCENDIOS, EQUIPO DE COMBATE PERSONAL Ausrüstung für Feuereinsatz (Einsatzpaket) PAQUETAGE INCENDIE A one-person unit of fire tools, equipment, and supplies prepared in advance for carrying on the back.
fire perimeter Feuerumfang The entire outer edge or boundary of a fire.
fire planning PLANIFICACION DE LA DEFENSA, PLAN DE PROTECCION Vorbeugende Waldbrandplanung PLANIFICATION DE LA PROTECTION CONTRE LE FEU The systematic technological and administrative management process of designing organization, facilities, and procedure to protect wildland from fire.
fire plot Versuchsfläche Experimental (scientific) fire observation or monitoring area.
fire plotting map MAPA DE SITUACION DE INCENDIOS, MAPA DE LOCALIZACION DE INCENDIOS Karte zur Lokalisierung eines Feuers CARTE DE RELEVE DES INCENDIES A map used for determining the location of fires, commonly provided with an azimuth circle to facilitate location by cross bearings.
fire plough ARADO Pflug, Scheibenpflug CHARRUE A heavy duty plough of either the share or disc type, designed solely for constructing fireguards or fuelbreaks
fire potential Feuerpotential Capable of being or becoming: a potential fire danger.
fire presuppression PREPARACION DE LA EXTINCION, PRESUPRESION [Vorbeugender Brandschutz zur Unterstützung der Feuerbekämpfung] PREPARATION DE LA DEFENSE CONTRE LES INCENDIES (PREVENTION) Activities undertaken in advance of fire occurrence to help ensure more effective fire suppression; includes overall planning, recruitment and training of fire personnel, procurement and maintenance of fire fighting equipment and supplies, fuel treatment, and creating, maintaining, and improving a system of fuelbreaks, roads, water sources, and control lines.
fire prevention PREVENCION DE INCENDIOS Feuerverhütung PREVENTION GENERALE CONTRE LES INCENDIES All measures in fire management, fuel management, forest management, forest utilization and concerning the land users and the general public, including law enforcement, that may result in the prevention of outbreak of fires or the reduction of fire severity and spread (syn. Prevention, cf. Fire Control)
fire progress map MAPA DE AVANCE DEL INCENDIO [Karte der gegenwärtigen Waldbrandsituation] CARTE DE MARCHE D’UN INCENDIE, CARTE DE DEVELOPPEMENT D’UN INCENDIE Map maintained on a large fire to show at specified times the location of the fire perimeter, deployment of suppression forces, and progress of suppression.
fire protection PROTECCION CONTRA INCENDIOS Brandschutz, Feuerschutz, Abwehrender Brandschutz PROTECTION ANTI-INCENDIE The actions taken to limit the adverse environmental, social, political, and economical effects of wildland fire.
fire pump MOTOBOMBA PORTATIL Pumpe, Tragkraftspritze POMPE A INCENDIE, MOTOPOMPE An engine-driven pump, usually gasoline powered, specifically designed for use in fire suppression, which may be either carried by a person or transported on skids or a trailer.
fire rake Feuerrechen Long-handled combination rake and cutting tool, the blade of which is constructed of a single row of three or four sharpened teeth (syn. rake).
fire regime Feuerregime The patterns of fire occurrence, size, and severity - and sometimes, vegetation and fire effects as well - in a given area or ecosystem. It integrates various fire characteristics. A natural fire regime is the total pattern of fires over time that is characteristic of a natural region or ecosystem. The classification of fire regimes includes variations in ignition, fire intensity and behavior, typical fire size, fire return intervals, and ecological effects.
fire resistant plant ESPECIE RESISTENTE AL FUEGO Feuerresistente Pflanze ARBRE RESISTANT AU FEU Species with morphological or seasonal growth characteristics that give it a low probability of being injured or killed by fire, e.g. by the heat-insulating effect of bark or seasonal dormancy.
fire retardant RETARDANTE Brandhemmender Löschmittelzusatz RETARDANT Any substance except plain water that by chemical or physical action reduces the flammability of fuels or slows their rate of combustion, e.g., a liquid or slurry applied aerially or from the ground during a fire suppression operation (syn. retardant; cf. poise).
fire risk see: risk
fire run [Schnelles Ausbrechen der Feuerfront] Rapid advance of a fire characterized by a marked increase in rate of spread and a corresponding increase in frontal fire intensity with respect to that noted before and following the event.
fire scar (1) HERIDA, (2) CICATRIZ POR FUEGO (1) Brandwunde; (2) Brandfläche (Fernerkundung) CICATRICE D’INCENDIE, BLESSURES D’INCENPIES, MARQUES D’INCENPIES (1) Mark left on the surface (bark) of woody vegetation after the healing of a fire injury (cf. fire wound); (2) mark left on vegetation or on a landscape by fire as depicted from the air or from space (remote sensing).
fire scar analysis ANALISIS DE HERIDA (CICATRlCES) POR EL FUEGO [Analyse von Brandwunden zur Rekonstruktion der Feuergeschichte] ANALYSE DES CICATRICES Analysis of fire scars to determine the occurrence of past (historic) fire events (fire frequency, fire-return intervals) of individual trees or for specified areas.
fire season EPOCA DE PELIGRO, TEMPORADA DE INCENDIOS Feuersaison SAISON D’INCENDIE (1) Period(s) of the year during which wildland fires are likely to occur and affect resources values sufficient to warrant organized fire management activities; (2) a legally enacted time during which burning activities are regulated by State or local authority.
fire sensitive species Feuerempfindliche Art A species that has a greater probability of being killed or scarred by fire, e.g. a tree with thin bark or highly flammable foliage, or an animal species which cannot evade the lethal temperatures of a wildland fire.
fire service SERVICIO DE INCENDIOS, ORGANIZACION DE PROTECCION CONTRA INCENDIOS Feuerwehr SERVICE D’INCENDIE The organized fire protection service; its members, individually and collectively; allied organizations assisting protection agencies.
fire severity [Grad bzw. Stärke der Auswirkungs eines Feuers] Degree to which a site has been altered or disrupted by fire; loosely, a product of fire intensity and residence time (cf. fire intensity).
fire shelter Feuerschutzzelt An aluminized tent offering protection by means of reflecting radiant heat and providing a volume of breathable air in a fire entrapment situation. Fire shelters should only be used in life threatening situations, as a last resort.
fire shovel PALA Feuerschaufel PELLE A FEU A type of shovel specifically designed for use in constructing a fireline. It has a tapered blade with both edges sharpened; used for scraping, digging, grubbing, and cutting.
fire simulator SlMULADOR DE INCENDIOS Feuersimulator, Waldbrandsimulator SIMULATEUR D’INCENDIE A training device (generally an integrated set of several types of projectors and a large screen) that imposes simulated fire, smoke, etc. on a projected landscape scene, for the purpose of instructing fire control personnel in different fire situations and fire suppression techniques.
fire spread see: rate of spread
fire spread model Feuerausbreitungsmodell Set of mathematical equations used to predict the advance of a fire front for a given fuelbed and topographical and meteorological conditions.
fire storm NUBE CONVECTIVA DE FUEGO, TORMENTA DE FUEGO Feuersturm INCENDIE TORNADE Violent convection caused by a large continuous area of intense fire, often characterized by destructively violent, surface indrafts, a towering convection column, long-distance spotting, and sometimes by tornado-like vortices (cf. extreme fire bahavior).
fire suppressant Mittel zur Waldbrandbekämpfung Any agent used to extinguish the flaming and glowing phases of combustion by direct application to the burning fuel.
fire suppression EXTINCION DE INCENDIOS, SUPRESION DE INCENDIOS Feuerbekämpfung EXTINCTION All activities concerned with controlling and extinguishing a fire following its detection. (Syn. Fire Control, Fire Fighting).Methods of suppression are:Direct Attack - A method whereby the fire is attacked immediately adjacent to the burning fuel.Parallel Attack - A method whereby a fireguard is constructed as close to the fire as heat and flame permit, and burning out the fuel between the fire and the fireguard.Indirect Attack - A method whereby the control line is strategically located to take advantage of favorable terrain and natural breaks in advance of the fire perimeter and the intervening strip is usually burned out or backfired.Hot Spotting - A method to check the spread and intensity of a fire at those points that exhibit the most rapid spread or that otherwise pose some special threat to control of the situation. This is in contrast to systematically working all parts of the fire at the same time, or progressively, in a step-by-step manner.Cold Trailing - A method of determining whether or not a fire is still burning, involving careful inspection and feeling with the hand, or by use of a hand-held infrared scanner, to detect any heat source.Mop-Up - The act of extinguishing a fire after it has been brought under control.
fire suppression organization ORGANIZACION DE EXTINCION, ORGANIZACION DE CONTROL DE INCENDIOS FORESTALES Organisation der Feuerbekämpfung ORGANISATION DE L‘EXTINCTION (1) The personnel collectively assigned to the suppression of a specific fire or group of fires; (2) the personnel responsible for fire suppression within a specified area; (3) the management structure, usually shown in the form of an organization chart of the persons and groups having specific responsibilities in fire suppression.
fire suppression plan Feuerbekämpfungsplan A document containing the essential elements of actions necessary to save human life and property, and minimize fire damage(s). May apply to an overall fire suppression program for a broad area but most often it is for site-specific situations (cf. fire management plan, preattack plan).
fire swatter BATEFUEGO, BATIDOR, MATAFUEGO Feuerpatsche BATTE A FEU A fire suppression tool, sometimes improvised, used in direct attack for beating out flames along a fire edge or from a light fire. It may consist merely of a bunch of twigs or wet sacking, or be a manufactured tool, e.g., a flap of belting fabric, rubber, o sheet metal fastened to a long handle (syn. fire flap, fire beater, flapper).
fire tool cache ALMACEN DE INCENDIOS, DEPOSITO DE HERRAMIENTAS Y EQUIPOS Löschgerätestützpunkt DEPOT D’OUTILLAGE CONTRE LE FEU Supply of fire tools and equipment assembled in planned quantities and/or standard units at a strategic point, for exclusive use in fire suppression.
fire tower see: lookout tower
fire trace LINEA DE DEFENSA, LINEA DE FUEGO Basislinie (für Gegenfeuer bzw. kontrolliertes Brennen) LIGNE P’APPUI A temporary, cleared (often burned), narrow strip from which to counterfire or do prescribed burning
fire trap ACUMULACION DE COMBUSTIBLE Extreme Gefahrenlage TRAQUENARD, ZONE PIEGE TRES RICHE EN COMBUSTIBLES, ZONE A RISQUE ELEVE (1) An accumulation of highly combustible material, rendering firefighting dangerous; (2) any situation in which it is highly dangerous to fight fire.
fire trench see: trench
fire triangle TRIANGULO DEL FUEGO Feuerdreieck TRIANGLE DU FEU Instructional aid in which the sides of a triangle are used to represent the three factors (oxygen, heat, fuel) necessary for combustion and flame production; removal of any of the three factors causes flame production to cease (cf. fire Behaviour triangle, fire environment triangle, fire fundamentals triangle).
fire truck see: ground tanker
fire warden RESPONSABLE DE INCENDIOS, ENCARGADO DE PROTECCION Waldbrandbeauftragter DIRECTEUR DE LA DEFENSE, GARDE-FEU Officer in charge of fire protection in a specific area (cf. fire boss, fire guard).
fire weather CONDICIONES METEOROLOGICAS QUE INFLUYEN EN EL FUEGO Feuerwetter, Waldbrandwetterlage JOUR A RISQUE Weather conditions which influence fire ignition, behavior, and suppression. Weather parameters are dry-bulb temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, precipitation, atmospheric stability, winds aloft.
fire weather forecast CONDICIONES METEOROLOGICAS QUE INFLUYEN EN EL FUEGO Feuerwetter, Waldbrandwetterlage JOUR A RISQUE A prediction of the future state of the atmosphere prepared specifically to meet the needs of fire management in fire suppression and prescribed burning operations. Two types of forecasts are most common: The zone or area weather forecast is issued on a regular basis during the fire season for a particular geographical region and/or one or more fire weather stations. These regions are delineated on the basis of fire climate and/or administrative considerations. A spot weather forecast is issued to fit the time, topography, and weather of a specific campaign fire location or prescribed fire site. These forecasts are issued on request and are more detailed, timely, and specific than zone or area weather forecasts.
fire weather index (FWI) INDICE METEOROLOGICO DE PELIGRO Feuer- /Waldbrandwetterindex INDICE METEOROLOGIQUE DES INCENDIES see: Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index Table
fire weather station Feuerwetterstation A meteorological station equipped to measure fire weather elements. A primary weather station is one at which sufficient weather observations are taken to compute fire danger indexes. A secondary weather station does not provide this level of information, but rather provides supplementary data on weather conditions.
fire whirl TORBELLINO DE FUEGO Feuerwirbel TOURBILLON DE FEU Spinning vortex column of ascending hot air and gases rising from a fire and carrying aloft smoke, debris, and flame. Fire whirls range from less than one metre to several hundred metres in diameter. Large fire whirls have the intensity of a small tornado (syn. fire devil, whirlwind).
fire wound Feuerwunde An injury caused by fire left on the surface of living tissue (cf. fire scar).
fire year Feuerjahr A year when severe drought, combined with other factors such as high winds, contribute to a large number of wildfires.
fire-dependent ecosystem Feuerabhängiges Ökosystem An ecosystem which requires periodic fire to maintain the character, diversity and vigour of its intrinsic plant and animal communities.
fire-dependent species Feuerabhängige Art Plant and animal species which require regular fire influence which triggers or facilitates regeneration mechanisms, or regulates competition. Without fire influence these species would become extinct.
fire-return interval Abstand zwischen dem Wiederauftreten von Feuer The number of years between two successive fires documented in a designated area (i.e., the interval between two successive fire occurrences); the size of the area must be clearly specified.
fire-sensitive species ESPECIE NO RESISTENTE AL FUEGO, ESPECIE SENSIBLE AL FUEGO Feuerempfindliche Art A species with thin bark or highly flammable foliage that has a relatively greater probability of being killed or scarred by a fire.
firebrand pavesas, materia en combustlon Brennendes Material (z.B. glühende Partikel, Flugfeuer) brandon flammeche, tison Flaming or glowing fuel particles that can be carried naturally by wind, convection currents, or by gravity into unburned fuels.
firebreak cortafuegos, cortafuego Brandschutzstreifen, Feuerschutzstreifen, Wundstreifen pare-feu Any natural or constructed discontinuity in a fuelbed utilized to segregate, stop, and control the spread of fire or to provide a control line from which to suppress a fire; characterized by complete lack of combustibles down to mineral soil (as distinguished from fuelbreak). (cf. control line)
firebreak Feuerschneise, Feuerschutzstreifen Any natural or constructed discontinuity in a fuelbed utilized to segregate stop, and control the spread of fire or to provide a control line from which to suppress a fire (cf. fire guard).
firecast [modelos de prediccion] [Feuerausbreitungsmodell] modele de prediction d’incendie Set of computerized firemodels run during fire season at the operations coordination center on preselected locations to indicate possible fire spread from those points for that date (ICS).
firefighter BOMBERO, COMBATIENTE Feuerwehrmann POMPIER Person whose principal function is fire suppression
firefinder ALIDADA Peilscheibe ALIDADE, DETECTEUR D’INCENDIE, INSTRUMENT A REPERER UN lNCENDIE A device or instrument used by lookouts to determine the horizontal bearing and sometimes the vertical angle of a fire from a lookout.
fireline LINEA DE DEFENSA, LINEA DE FUEGO Schutzstreifen, Bekämpfungslinie, Sicherungslinie, Feuerlinie LIGNE D’ARRET, LIGNE DE MISE A FEU TACTIQUE (1) A loose term for any cleared strip used in control of a fire; generally that portion of a control line from which flammable materials have been removed by scraping or digging down to the mineral soil; (2) a cleared, permanent firebreak. (cf. control line)
fireline explosives Sprengstoff (für das Anlegen einer Feuerbekämpfungslinie) Specially developed coils containing explosives that are detonated to create a fireline through ground fuels.
fireline intensity INTENSIDAD LINEAL DEL FUEGO, INTENSIDAD CALORICA Abbrandrate, Feuerintensität INTENSITE DU FEU The rate of heat release per unit time per unit length of fire front. Numerically, the product of the heat of combustion, quantity of fuel consumed per unit area in the fire front, and the rate of spread of a fire, expressed in kW/m (syn. Byram´s intensity, fire intensity).
firing technique TECNICA DE IGNICION, TECNICA DE ENCENDIDO Brenntechnik TECHNIQUE DU FEU TACTIQUE Any method of igniting a wildland area to consume the fuel in a prescribed pattern; e.g., heading or backing fire, spot fire, strip-head fire, and ring fire.
firing/firing out PRENDER FUEGO, ENCENDIDO Gegen- bzw. Vorfeuer anlegen FEU TACTIQUE The intentional setting of fires to fuels between the control line and the main front of fire, either as backfiring or burning out operation.
fix FIJO, UBICACION GEOGRAFICA Position, Standort POINT [Aviation] A geographical position determined by visual reference to the surface, by reference to one or more radio navigational aids, by celestial plotting, or by any other navigational device.
fixed-point detection DETECTION DESDE PUESTOS (PUNTOS) FIJOS Feuer- / Waldbrandentdeckung (stationär) LOCALlSATION A PARTIR DE POINTS FIXES Detection of fires from lookout towers or other semi-permanent locations as distinguished from mobile ground patrols or aerial detection.
flame LLAMA Flamme FLAMME A rapidly reacting body of gas, commonly a mixture of air and a combustible gas, generally accompanied by the evolution of sensible heat and incandescence.
flame angle Flammen-Winkel Angle between the flame at the leading edge of the fire front and the ground surface, expressed in degrees.
flame depth Tiefe einer Flamme bzw. Feuerfront The depth of the fire front.
flame height Flammenhöhe The average maximum vertical extension of flames at the leading edge of the fire front. Occasional flashes that rise above the general level of flames are not considered. This distance is less than the flame length if flames are tilted due to wind or slope.
flame length LONGITUD DE LLAMA, LARGO DE LLAMA Flammenlänge LONGUEUR DE FLAMME The distance between the flame tip and the midpoint of the flame depth at the base of the flame (generally the ground surface), an indicator of fire intensity (cf. frontal fire intensity).
flame thrower LANZALLAMAS Flammenwerfer LANCE FLAMMES Device for throwing a stream of flaming liquid, used to facilitate rapid ignition during burn out operations on a wildfire or during a prescribed fire operation (cf. burning torch, terra torch).
flaming combustion Verbrennung mit Flammenerscheinung Luminous oxidation of gases evolved from the rapid decomposition of fuel. The flaming phase follows the pre-ignition phase and precedes the smoldering combustion phase, which has a much slower combustion rate. Water vapor, soot, and tar comprise the visible smoke. Relatively efficient combustion produces minimal soot and tar and white smoke; high moisture content also produces white smoke.
flaming front FRENTE DE LLAMAS Flammfront FRONT DE FLAMMES That zone of a moving fire where the combustion is primarily flaming. Behind this flaming zone combustion is primarily glowing. Light fuels typically have a shallow flaming front, whereas heavy fuels have a deeper front.
flammability INFLAMABILIDAD Entflammbarkeit INFLAMMABILITE Relative ease of igniting and burning of a given fuel under controlled conditions, with or without a pilot flame. Flammability of a fuel is characterised quantitatively by the ignition delay of a sample of fuel exposed to a normalised radiation source
flank fire CONTRAFUEGO DE FLANCO, ENCENDIDO DE LOS FLANCOS Flankenfeuer FEU DE FLANC (FEU DE FLANQUEMENT) A fire spreading, or set to spread, parallel (at roughly right angle) to the prevailing wind direction or to slope (cf. backfire, head fire).
flank fire ignition see: ignition pattern
flanking fire suppression ATAQUE POR EL FLANCO, ATAQUE POR LOS FLANCOS Flankenangriff EXTINCTION PAR LES FLANCS Attacking a fire by working along the flanks either simultaneously or successively from a less active or anchor point and endeavoring to connect the two lines at the head.
flanks see: forest fire
flanks of a fire FLANCOS Feuerflanken FLANCS D’UN FEU The parts of the perimeter of a fire that are roughly parallel to the main direction of spread.
flapper see: fire swatter
flare up LLAMARADA Aufflammen FLAMBEE SOUDAINE Any sudden acceleration in rate of spread or intensification of the fire. Unlike blowup, a flare-up is of relatively short duration and does not radically change existing control plans (cf. blow-up, run of a fire).
flash fuel COMBUSTIBLE LIGERO [Schnell entzündliches und abbrennbares Material] COMBUSTIBILES LEGERS Fuels, e.g. grass, ferns, leaves, draped (i.e., intercepted when falling) needles, tree moss, and light slash, that ignite readily and are consumed rapidly by fire when dry; generally characterized by a comparatively high surface-to-volume ratio (cf. fine fuel).
flashover INFLAMACION DE GASES Feuersprung EXPLOSION AVEC FLAMMES, FLAMME ECLAIR (1) Rapid combustion and/or explosion of trapped, unburned gases; usually occurs in poorly ventilated areas. The flashover phenomenon is normally associated with structural or urban fires. However, it can occur in forest fires (although rare) when gases are trapped in topographic pockets or accumulate over a broad area when there is a temporary lull in air movement. (2) Stage of a fire at which all surfaces and objects within a space have been heated to their ignition temperature, and flame breaks out almost at once over the surface of all objects within the space.
flight visibility VISIBILIDAD EN (DE) VUELO Flugsicht VISIBILITE EN VOL The greatest distance which is possible to see during a flight under given atmospheric conditions. This visibility can be hindered by clouds, smoke and haze, especially in areas, where fires are taking place.
floatable pump Schwimmpumpe Small portable pump that floats in the water source.
flow conditioner FLUIDIFICADOR Mittel zur Erhaltung der Rieselfähigkeit ADJUVANT, POUDRE STABILISATRIC E, FLUIDIFIANT Chemical powders that will, in very small quantities, impart free-flowing qualities to other powders and tend to prevent them from caking and flocculating; used with fire retardant chemicals.
fluid foam Schaum in flüssiger Phase A low expansion foam type with some bubble structure and moderate drain time, exhibiting properties of both wet and dry foam types, which is used for extinguishment, protection, and mopup.
fly ash CENIZAS LANZADAS AL AIRE, PAVESA Flugasche CENDRE VOLANTE Particulate matter emitted by a fire and larger then l0 microns in diameter with a consequently short residence time in the atmosphere.
foam ESPUMA Schaum, Schaumlöschmittel MOUSSE EXTINCTRICE The aerated solution created by forcing air into, or entraining air in water containing a foam concentrate by means of suitably designed equipment or by cascading it through the air at a high velocity. Foam reduces combustion by cooling, moistening and excluding oxygen (syn. fire foam).
foam blanket Schaumteppich A layer of foam which forms an insulating and reflective barrier to heat and is used for fuel protection, suppression, and mopup.
foam concentrate Schaumlöschmittel-Konzentrat The concentrated foaming agent as received from the manufacturer which, when added to water, creates a foam solution.
foam line Schaumstreifen A body of foam placed along areas to be protected from fire; also used as an anchor for indirect attack in place of hand-made fire trail.
foam solution Schaumlösung A low expansion foam type with no expansion, therefore lacking bubble structure, which is used for mopup and flame knockdown.
foam system Schaumsystem The apparatus and techniques used to mix concentrate with water to make solution, pump and mix air and solution to make foam, and transport and apply foam.
foaming agent Schaummittel An additive that reduces the surface tension of water (producing wet water) causing it to spread and penetrate more effectively and which produces foam through mechanical means.
foehn wind Föhn A warm, dry and strong general wind that flows down into the valleys when stable, high pressure air is forced across and then down the lee slopes of a mountain range. The descending air is warmed and dried due to adiabatic compression producing critical fire weather conditions.
fog (1), (2) NIEBLA (1) Nebelstrahl, (2) Nebel BROUILLARD (1) [Firefighting] A jet of fine water spray discharged by spray nozzles, used to extinguish fires. (2) [Meteorology] Suspension of small water droplets near ground level, extend vertically to at least 6 m and reduces horizontal visibility to less than 1,000 m.
folding tank DEPOSITO PLEGABLE Gummikissentank RESERVOIR SOUPLE A portable, collapsible water tank with a tubular frame.
follow-up REFUERZO Verstärkung RENFORT Action of augmenting initial attack by sending additional resources to facilitate fire suppression (syn. reinforced response).
footprint see: aircraft footprint
forecast area ZONA DE VALIDEZ DE LA PREDICCION (PRONOSTICO) Vorhersagegebiet (Feuerwetter) ZONE DE PREVISION The geographical area for which a fire weather forecast is specified.
forest see: forest fire
forest fire INCENDIO BOSCHIVO, INCENDIO FORESTALE Waldbrand FEU DE FORET I. Definition of forest fireAny wildfire or prescribed fire that is burning in a forest, variously defined for legal purposes. The FAO Forest Resource Assessment 2000 aims towards global standardization of the terminology: Forest: Land with tree crown cover of more than 10 percent and area of more than 0.5 hectares. The trees should be able to reach a minimum height of 5 meters at maturity. Other wooded land: Land either with a crown cover of 5-10 percent of trees able to reach a height of 5 meters at maturity; or a crown cover of more than 10 percent of trees not able to reach a height of 5 meters at maturity; or with shrub or bush cover of more than 10 percent. Other land: Land with less crown cover, tree height, or shrub cover as defined under "Other wooded land". Indication is desired if recurring wildfires affect "Other land" by inhibiting regeneration to the "Forest" and "Other wooded land" categories.II. TypologyGround Fire: A fire that burns in the ground fuel layer (syn. Subsurface Fire) Surface Fire: A fire that burns in the surface fuel layer, excluding the crowns of the trees, as either a head fire, flank fire, or backfire. Crown Fire: A fire that advances through the crown fuel layer, usually in conjunction with the surface fire. Crown fires can be classified according to the degree of dependence on the surface fire phase: Intermittent Crown Fire: A fire in which trees discontinuously torch, but rate of spread is controlled by the surface fire phase (syn. passive crown fire) Active Crown Fire: A fire that advances with a well-defined wall of flame extending from the ground surface to above the crown fuel layer. Probably most crown fires are of this class. Development of an active crown fire requires a substantial surface fire, and thereafter the surface and crown phases spread as a linked unit (syn. dependent crown fire) Independent Crown Fire: A fire that advances in the crown fuel layer only (syn. running crown fire) III. Anatomical parts of a forest fire Bay: A marked indentation in the fire perimeter, usually located between two fingers (syn. Pocket) Finger: An elongated burned area projecting from the main body of the fire resulting in an irregular fire perimeter. Flanks: Those portions of the fire perimeter that are between the head and the back of the fire which are roughly parallel to the main direction of spread Head: That portion of the fire perimeter having the greatest rate of spread and frontal fire intensity which is generally on the downwind and/or upslope part of the fire (syn. front) Back: That portion of the fire perimeter opposite the head; the slowest spreading part of the fire syn. Base, Heel, rear) Island: An area of unburned fuels located within the fire perimeter Point of Origin: The location within the fire perimeter where ignition first occurred (cf. spot fire).
forest fire management see: fire management
forest floor Waldboden Organic surface component of the soil supporting forest vegetation; comprised of litter, fermentation, and humus layers. The accumulated litter and layers on the floor are the most important fuels for a forest fire.
forest industry (fire) see: fire cause
forest protection PROTECCION FORESTAL Forstschutz, Waldschutz PROTECTION FORESTIERE That section of forestry concerned with the management of biotic and non-biotic damage to forests, arising from the action of humans (particularly unauthorized use of fire, human-caused wildfires, grazing and browsing, felling), natural wildfires, pests, pathogens, and extreme climatic events (wind, frost, precipitation).
forest residue RESIDUOS FORESTALES, DESECHOS FORESTALES Holzernterückstände, Schlagabraum REMANENTS ET COUVERTURE MORTE The accumulation in the forest of living or dead, mostly woody material that is added to and rearranged by human activities such as forest harvest, cultural operations, and land clearing.
forward looking infrared (FLIR) Vorwärtsgerichteter Infrarotsensor A hand held or aircraft mounted device designed to detect heat differentials and display their images on a video screen. FLIRs have thermal resolution similar to IR line scanners, but their spatial resolution is substantially less. They are commonly used to detect hot spots and flareups obscured by smoke, to evaluate the effectiveness of firing operations, to detect areas needing mopup work, and for other purposes.
forward rate of spread Ausbreitungsgeschwindigkeit des Feuers The speed with which a fire moves in a horizontal direction across the landscape.
fragmentation Fragmentierung The process of transforming large continuous vegetation or landscape patterns into smaller patches by disturbance. Natural agents of fragmentation are fire, landslides, windthrow, insects, erosion. Human-induced fragmentations include land use (e.g., agriculture, grazing, forestry), construction of residential areas, roads and other infrastructures. Fragmentation involves change of fire regimes due to alteration and discontinuity of fuels (cf. fuel continuity).
free burning Feuer mit Eigendynamik The condition of a fire or part of a fire that has not been slowed by natural or human-made barriers, or by control measure.
free flow CAUDAL EN (DE) SALIDA LIBRE Freie Strömung DEBIT MAXIMUM [Hydraulics] Maximum water flow rate a fire pump will attain when there are no restrictions at the pump outlet or losses due to friction or head.
friction loss PERDIDA DE CARGA, PERDIDA DE PRESION POR ROCE Reibungsverlust PERTE DE CHARGE Pressure loss caused by the turbulent movement of water or solution against the interior surface of fire hose, pipe, or fittings; normally measured in pressure loss per length of hose or pipe.
front Front; Feuerfront (1) [Meteorology] The boundary between two air masses of different density. A cold front represents the leading edge of colder air replacing warmer air; the reverse of this is a warm front. (2) [Fire Terminology] The part of a fire within which continuous flaming combustion is taking place. Unless otherwise specified, the fire front is assumed to be the leading edge of the fire perimeter. In ground fires, the fire front may be mainly smouldering combustion.
frontal fire intensity Feuerintensität (an der Feuerfront) The rate of heat energy release per unit time per unit length of fire front. Flame size is its main visual manifestation. Frontal fire intensity is a major determinant of certain fire effects and difficulty of control. Numerically, it is equal to the product of the net heat of combustion, quantity of fuel consumed in the flaming front, and linear rate of spread. Recommended SI unit is kilowatts per metre (kW/m) (syn. Byram's fireline intensity [used mainly in the United States], cf. flame length).
fuel COMBUSTIBLE Brennmaterial, brennbares Material COMBUSTIBLE All combustible organic material in forests and other vegetation types, including agricultural systems, such as grass, branches and wood, which create heat during the combustion process.
fuel accumulation Anhäufung von Brennmaterial Process or result of build-up of those elements of a vegetation complex which are not subject to biological decay, reduction by fire, animal grazing and browsing, or harvest by humans; used in characterizing fuel dynamics between two fires and implications on fire behaviour. (cf. fuel appraisal)
fuel appraisal Erfassung des Brennmaterials The process of first describing the fuel type characteristics and secondly interpreting the fuel description in terms of potential fire behaviour on the basis of past experience, comparative methods and mathematical models (fuel accumulation).
fuel arrangement DISPOSICION DEL COMBUSTIBLE Räumliche Anordnung des Brennmaterials REPARTITION DES COMBUSTIBLES The horizontal and vertical distribution of all combustible materials within a particular fuel type.
fuel bed Brennmaterialbett (-schicht) The array of fuels in natural layers or experimental settings, characterized by specific loading, depth, compactness and particle size.
fuel bulk density Dichte des Brennmaterials The dry weight of combustible materials per unit volume. Numerically, it is equal to fuel load divided by the depth of the particular fuel layer (e.g., duff, tree crown foliage). Recommended SI units are grams per cubic centimetre (g/cm3) and kilograms per cubic metre (kg/m3) (0.1 g/cm3 is equivalent to 100 kg/m3).
fuel characteristics Eigenschaften des Brennmaterials Factors determining fuel properties such as compactness, loading, horizontal continuity, vertical arrangement, chemical content, size and shape, and moisture content.
fuel class TIPO DE COMBUSTIBLES, CLASE DE COMBUSTIBLES Brennmaterialklasse CLASSE DE COMBUSTIBLE A group of fuels possessing common characteristics. For instance, in the U.S. National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS), dead fuels are grouped according to their timelag (1-, l0-, l00-, and l,000-hours timelag; see: timelag). Living fuels are grouped as herbaceous (annual or perennial) or woody.
fuel compactness see: compactness
fuel complex Brennmaterialkomplex The aggregate of fuels of characteristic species, arrangements and loads over a large area.
fuel components Komponenten des Brennmaterials Associations of fuel properties related to the way a fuel grows or is located after shedding or falling off, e.g., ground, surface, aerial or crown fuels.
fuel condition Zustand des Brennmaterials Relative flammability of fuel as determined by fuel type and environmental conditions.
fuel consumption Verbranntes Brennmaterial (Menge, Anteil) The amount of a specified fuel type or strata that is removed through the fire process, often expressed as a percentage of the preburn fuel weight (or fuel load). It includes available fuel plus fuel consumed after the fire front passes.
fuel continuity CONTINUIDAD DEL COMBUSTIBLE Kontinuität des Brennmaterials CONTINUITE DU COMBUSTIBLE Degree or extent of continuous or uninterrupted distribution of fuel particles (surface or aerial) in a fuelbed thus affecting a fire's ability to sustain combustion and spread (cf. fragmentation).
fuel depth Tiefe der Brennmaterialschicht The average distance from the bottom of the litter layer to the top of the layer of fuel, usually the surface fuel.
fuel energy available for convection ENERGIA DE CONVECCION Energie für konvektive Aktivität ENERGIE DE CONVECTION DISPONIBLE That portion of the available fuel energy which is actually fed into the base of the convection column (cf. available fuel energy, energy release component).
fuel ladder see: ladder fuel
fuel loading CARGA DE COMBUSTIBLE Auflagegewicht des Brennmaterials BIOMASSE DE COMBUSTIBLE The amount of fuel present expressed quantitatively in terms of weight of fuel per unit area. This may be available fuel (consumable fuel) or total fuel, usually expressed as ovendry weight.
fuel management ORDENACION DEL COMBUSTIBLE, MANEJO DE COMBUSTIBLES Brennmaterialbehandlung, Brennmaterial-Management CONTROLE DU COMBUSTIBLE Act or practice of controlling flammability and reducing resistance to control of wildland fuels through mechanical, chemical, biological, or manual means, or by fire, in support of land management objectives.
fuel model MODELO DE COMBUSTIBLE Brennmaterial-Modell MODELE DE COMBUSTIBLE Simulated fuel complex for which all fuel descriptors required for the solution of a mathematical rate of spread model have been specified.
fuel moisture analog MODELO DE HUMEDAD DEL COMBUSTIBLE, SIMULADOR DE HUMEDAD DE I: COMBUSTIBLES MUERTOS [Analog zur Messsung des Feuchtigkeitsgehaltes von Brennmaterial] MODELE D’HUMIDIFICATION DU COMBUSTIBLE Device that emulates the moisture response of specific classes of dead fuels, constructed from organic or inorganic materials (e.g., the use of half-inch ponderosa pine dowels in the U.S.A. representing ten-hour timelag fuels; cf. fuel moisture indicator stick).
fuel moisture content CONTENIDO DE HUMEDAD DEL COMBUSTIBLE Brennmaterialfeuchte, Feuchtigkeitsgehalt des Brennmaterials TENEUR EN EAU DU COMBUSTIBLE Water content of a fuel expressed as a percentage of the ovendry weight of the fuel.
fuel moisture indicator stick TABLILLAS INDICADORAS DE LA HUMEDAD DEL COMBUSTIBLE [Indikator für Brennmaterialfeuchte] BATON INDICATEUR DE TENEUR EN EAU DU COMBUSTIBLE A specially manufactured stick or set of sticks of known dry weight continuously exposed to the weather and periodically weighed to determine changes in moisture content as an indication of moisture changes in wildland fuels (fuel moisture analog).
fuel properties Eigenschaften des Brennmaterials The primary physical characteristics of a fuel; eg, quantity, size and shape, compactness, and arrangement.
fuel reduction Verringerung/Herabsetzung der Auflage des Brennmaterials Manipulation, including combustion, or removal of fuels to reduce the likelihood of ignition, the potential fire intensity, and/or to lessen potential damage and resistance to control.
fuel size class Grössenklasse des Brennmaterials A category used to describe the diameter of down dead woody fuels. Fuels within the same size class are assumed to have similar wetting and drying properties, and to preheat and ignite at similar rates during the combustion process.
fuel treatment TRATAMIENT0 PREVENTIVO DEL COMBUSTIBLE, REDUCCION DE COMBUST IBLES Behandlung des Brennmaterials REDUCTION DE COMBUSTIBLE Manipulation or removal of fuels to reduce the likelihood of ignition and/or to lessen potential damage and resistance to control (e.g., lopping, chipping, crushing, piling and burning (cf. hazard reduction).
fuel type TIPO DE COMBUSTIBLE Brennmaterial (Typ, Art) TYPE DE COMBUSTIBLE An identifiable association of fuel elements of distinctive species, form, size, arrangement, or other characteristics that will cause a predictable rate of spread or resistance to control under specified weather conditions.
fuel type pattern DISPOSICION DE LOS COMBUSTIBLES, PLANO DE COMBUSTIBLES Verteilungsmuster des Brennmaterials DISPOSITION DES COMBUSTIBLES A mosaic of distinct fuel types on a given area.
fuelbreak AREA CORTAFUEGOS, CORTACOMBUSTIBLES Feuerbarriere, Waldbrandriegel PARE-FEU VEGETAL, PARE-FEU CULTIVE, COUPURE VERTE, GRANDE COUPURE Generally wide (20 - 300 meters) strips of land on which either less flammable native vegetation is maintained and integrated into fire management planning, or vegetation has been permanently modified so that fires burning into them can be more readily controlled (as distinguished from firebreak). In some countries fuelbreaks are integrated elements of agro-silvopastoral systems in which the vegetative cover is intensively treated by crop cultivation or grazing. Some fuelbreaks contain narrow firebreaks which may be roads or narrower hand-constructed lines. During fires, these firebreaks can quickly be widened either with hand tools or by firing out. Fuelbreaks have the advantages of preventing erosion, offering a safe place for firefighters to work, low maintenance, and a pleasing appearance (cf. control line, agrosilvopastoral system, buffer strip/zone).
fuelbreak system RED DE AREAS CORTAFUEGOS, SISTEMA DE AREAS CORTACOMBUSTIBLES Waldbrandriegelsystem MAILLAGE PARE-FEU, CLOISONNEMENT PARE FEU Two or more relatively large areas of naturally open vegetation, or converted vegetation cover, interconnected by fuelbreaks to form strategic locations for control of fires.
fugitive color COLORANTE FUGAZ Flüchtiger Farbstoff COLORANT FUGACE A coloring agent used in fire retardants that is designed to fade rapidly following retardant application in order to minimize the visual impacts of the retardant.
full response fire [unverzüglich, mit allen Mitteln bekämpftes Feuer] A wildfire which requires immediate, aggressive initial attack and/or sustained suppression action until the fire is declared out.
fume Rauch Any smokelike or vaporous exhalation from substances, especially of an odorous or harmful nature.
fusee BENCALA Signalfackel FEU DE SIGNAL A colored flare designed as a railway warning device, widely used to ignite backfires and other prescribed fires.
gate valve VALVULA DE COMPUERTA, VALVULA DE SALIDA Absperrschieber VANNE (VALVE) A GUILLOTINE Controlling valve for hose or pump outlet or at a large caliber nozzle.
gear pump BOMBA DE ENGRANAJES Zahnradpumpe POMPE A ENGRENAGE Positive displacement pump which uses closely meshed gears to propel water when high pressures and low volumes are desired; can be used safely only with clear water.
general fire headquarters (GHQ) SERVICIOS CENTRALES, PUESTO DE MANDO GENERAL Überörtliche Einsatzleitung ETAT-MAJOR GENERAL D’INCENDIE A fire headquarters which commands fire fighting forces on a multi-zone campaign fire when the complexity of the fire situation requires that each zone be managed more or less as a separate major fire, each with its own camp(s) and its own command staff. GHQ may also manage one or more small fires which are adjacent to the campaign fire and which are tactically related to the larger fire.
general fire weather forecast Feuerwetter-Vorhersage A forecast, issued daily during the regular fire season to resource management agencies, that is intended for planning of daily fire management activities, including daily staffing levels, prevention programs, and initial attack on wildfires. Also called pre-suppression forecast.
general winds Large scale winds caused by high- and low-pressure systems but generally influenced and modified in the lower atmosphere by terrain (wind pattern on a synoptic scale).
geographic coordinate system Geographisches Koordinatensystem The standard geographic coordinate system involves latitudes north or south of the Equator and longitudes east or west of the Prime Reference Meridian of Greenwich. Map and control point references are stated in degrees, minutes, and seconds carried to the number of decimal places commensurate with the accuracy to which locations have been established.
geographic information system (GIS) Geografisches Informations-System A computer system designed to allow users to collect, manage and analyze large volumes of spatially referenced information and associated attribute data. In a GIS process called map overlay, different data coverage can be combined in any desired manner to create thematic maps.
geostationary Geostationär An orbit in which a satellite is always in the same position (appears stationary) with respect to the rotating Earth.
Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) [Eigenname] NASA-developed, NOAA-operated series of satellites with a five-channel instrument (one visible, four infrared) imaging radiometer designed to sense radiant and solar reflected energy from sample areas of the Earth. This system, designed mainly to look at clouds, provides frequent measurements over a specific region in the Western Hemisphere. The thermosensor is not typically capable of detecting small fires.
getaway time TIEMPO DE SALIDA AL INCENDIO Reaktionszeit PERIODE DE PREPARATION Elapsed time from receipt of notification by the personnel charged with initiating action of fire suppression up to the departure of the first suppression crew.
Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC) [Eigenname] A facility for global monitoring, interpretation, synthesis, archiving and distribution of global vegetation fire information and data with the overall objective of technology transfer and decision-support. GFMC products are available on the internet.
global fire propagation models Generelles Feuerausbreitungsmodell Fire behaviour models which describe or predict the overall evolution of the fire front.
global positioning system (GPS) Globales System zur Positionsbestimmung A system of 24 high-orbiting satellites that provides (depending on the receiver used) three dimensional positioning (latitude, longitude, altitude), velocity, track and time transfer information worldwide.
glowing combustion INCANDESCENCIA Glutbrand COMBUSTION DE BRAISES Oxidation of a solid surface accompanied by incandescence, sometimes evolving flame above it with low smoke production.
going fire INCENDIO NO EXTINGUIDO, INCENDIO ACTIVO Laufendes Feuer FEU ACTIF, FEU VIF The state of a fire during the period between its ignition and extinction.
gradient wind VIENTO DE GRADIENTE Gradientwind GRADIENT DE VENT A wind that flows parallel to pressure isobars or contours and has a velocity such that the pressure gradient (Coriolis) and centrifugal force acting in the area are in balance. It does not occur at the earth's surface due to fractional influence, but occurs at a height of roughly 450 m above mean terrain height.
grass fire Grasfeuer Any fire in which the predominant fuel is grass or grasslike.
gravity tank DEPOSITO CON DESAGUE FOR GRAVEDAD Hochbehälter RESERVOIR UTILISE PAR GRAVITE A water storage tank that supplies water by gravity pressure.
green fuel “Grünes” (frisches) Brennmaterial Living vegetation of high moisture content that ordinarily does not burn unless it is first dried by excessive heat such as that produced by an intense fire front (syn. Live fuel).
greenbelt CINTURON VERDE, CORTAFUEGO VERDE Grünguertel CEINTURE VEGETALE (C. VERTE) (1) A fuelbreak maintained by the cultivation of strips of less flammable plants within a zone of high fire hazard, e.g., an irrigated, landscaped, and regularly maintained fuelbreak put to some additional use (e.g., golf course, park, playground).
greenhouse effect Treibhauseffekt The ability of the atmosphere to be in large transparent to visible light but opaque to infrared light due to the effect of water vapour and greenhouse gases, resulting in trapping the heat near the Earths' surface where it warms the lower atmosphere (cf. greenhouse gas).
greenhouse gas Treibhausgas Gaseous components of the atmosphere contributing to the greenhouse effect. Greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide. methane, nitrous oxide, chloro-fluorocarbons, and water vapor. Vegetation fires emit greenhouse gases and contribute to the natural and anthropogenic greenhouse effect (cf. greenhouse effect).
grid ignition technique [Entzündungsmethode nach Gridmuster] Method of igniting fires in which ignition points are set individually at predetermined spacing with predetermined timing throughout the area to be burned (syn.point source ignition technique).
ground crew see: hand crew
ground effect EFECTO SUELO Bodeneffekt EFFET DE SOL [Aviation] Reaction of a helicopter rotor downwash against the ground surface forming a "ground cushion" that increases lifting capability of that section of air.
ground fire FUEGO DE SUBSUELO, INCENDIO SUBTERRANEO Feuer in organischer Auflage FEU DE PROFONDEUF, FEU „DE SOL“ see: forest fire (cf. peat fire)
ground fog NIEBLA AGARRADA AL SUELO, NIEBLA SUPERFICIAL Bodennebel BROUILLARD BAS, BROUILLARD AU SOL Fog is formed by the condensation of water vapour on condensation nuclei that are always present in natural air. Ground fog extends vertically to less than six meters.
ground fuel COMBUSTIBLE DE SUEL0, COMBUSTIBLE SUPERFICIAL Bodennahes Brennmaterial COMBUSTIBLE DU SOL All combustible materials below the litter layer of the forest floor that normally support smouldering or glowing combustion associated with ground fires. This fuel type includes duff, tree or shrub roots, punky wood, peat, and sawdust (cf. crown fuel, ladder fuel, surface fuel).
ground speed VELOCIDAD SOBRE SUELO Geschwindigkeit über Grund VITESSE AU SOL The speed of an aircraft with reference to the ground.
ground tanker VEHICULO CONTRAINCENDIOS, CAMION CISTERNA Tanklöschfahrzeug CAMION CITERNE, ANTI-INCENDIE ENGIN DE PREMIERE INTERVENTION A vehicle equipped with tank, pump, and necessary tools and equipment for spraying water and/or chemicals on grass, brush, and timber fires (syn. Fire truck, cf. engine).
ground truth COMPROBACION EN TIERRA [Terrestrische Verifizierung von Satellitendaten] RECOLEMENT Terrestrial verification at the site of what has been observed and/or measured from aircraft, satellites, other aerial platforms, aerial photographs, or maps.
ground visibility VISIBILIDAD EN EL SUELO Bodensicht VISIBILITE AU SOL The horizontal visibility observed at the ground, i.e., surface visibility or control-tower visibility.
gum-thickened sulphate (GTS) [Verdickungsmittel] A dry chemical product which is mixed with water to form a fire retardant slurry.
gust RACHA, RAFAGA RAFALE In meteorology, a brief wind-speed increase of 10 knots (4.6 m per second) or more.
gutter trench see: trench
Haines index [Eigenname] An atmospheric index used to indicate the potential for wildfire growth by measuring the stability and dryness of the air over a fire.
hand crew CUADRILIA, BRIGADA CON HERRAMIENTAS MANUALES Löschmannschaft, mit Handgeräten ausgestattet EQUIPE A OUTILLAGE MANUEL A fire crew, trained and equipped to fight fire with hand tools (cf. ground crew).
hand line LINEA DE DEFENSA (FUEGO) ABIERTA CON HERRAMIENTAS MANUALES Bekämpfungslinie, von Hand gezogen LIGNE DE DEFENSE ETABLIE MANUELLEMENT A fire line constructed with hand tools by a hand crew.
hand tools Handwerkzeuge The principal hand tools used in fire suppression are: (1) Pulaski - A combination chopping and trenching tool, which combines a single-bitted axe- blade with a narrow adze-like trenching blade fitted to a straight handler Useful for grubbing or trenching in duff and matted roots. Well balanced for chopping. (2) Fire Rake (Rich Type) - A long-handled combination rake and cutting tool, the blade of which is made up of a single row of mowing-machine cutter teeth. Useful for trenching, scraping, and cutting, particularly in leaves, pine needles, and light duff (syn. Rich Tool). (3) Fire Shovel - A type of shovel specifically designed for use in constructing a fire line, having a tapered blade with both edges sharpened. Used for scraping, digging, grubbing, and cutting. (4) Fire Swatter / Flapper / Beater) - A fire tool that consists of a thick, flat piece of rubber on a long handle used to drag over or smother out flames of grass fires. (5) Drip Torch: A hand-held apparatus for igniting prescribed fires and backfires by dripping flaming fuel on the materials to be burned. The device consists of a fuel fount, burner arm, and igniter. Fuel used is generally a mixture of 65-80% diesel and 20-35% gasoline.
hangover fire see: holdover fire
hard suction hose see: suction hose
hazard see: fire hazard
hazard reduction Reduzierung des Gefahrenpotentials Treatment of living and dead forest fuels to reduce the likelihood of a fire starting, and to lessen its damage potential and resistance to control (cf. fuel treatment).
hazardous areas Gefahrenbereich Those wildland areas where the combination of vegetation, topography, weather, and the threat of fire to life and property create difficult and dangerous problems.
hazardous materials (HAZMAT) Gefahrengut Any waste material that, when improperly handled, can cause substantial harm to human health and safety or to the environment. HAZMAT can take the form of solids, liquids, sludges, or contained gases, and they are generated primarily by chemical production, manufacturing, and other industrial activities. They may cause damage during inadequate storage, transportation, treatment, or disposal operations.
haze NEBLINA, BRUMA Dunst BRUME Suspension aggregation of very fine, widely dispersed, solid or liquid particles in the atmosphere giving the air an opalescent appearance.
head see: forest fire
head fire FUEGO A FAVOR DEL VIENTO (1) Mitwindfeuer, Lauffeuer. (2) Hangaufwärts laufendes Feuer FEU AU VENT (1) Fire front spreading with the wind. (2) Fire front spreading uphill with no wind or against the wind would also be termed a head fire if the angle of the flames, with respect to the unburned fuels, was less than 90 degrees (cf. flank fire).
head fire ignition see: ignition pattern
heading fire see: headfire
headlamp LAMPARA FRONTAL, LINTERNA DE CASSO Helmlampe LAMPE FRONTALE A flashlight, ordinarily worn by firefighters on the front of the helmet.
heat Hitze, Wärme Energy that is transferred from one body to another as the result of a difference in temperature.
heat low An area of low pressure caused by intense heating of the earth's surface. High surface temperature causes air to expand and rise, resulting in low atmospheric pressure and induces a weak inflow of air at the surface. Air which rises in a heat low is very dry so clouds seldom form. Rising air above a heat low produces a warm upper level high and results in a net outflow of air aloft. Heat lows remain practically stationary over areas which produce them.
heat of combustion CALOR DE COMBUSTION Verbrennungswärme CHALEUR DE COMBUSTION The heat energy resulting from the complete combustion of a fuel, expressed as the quantity of heat per unit weight of fuel. The high heat of combustion is the potential available, and the low heat of combustion is the high heat of combustion minus several losses that occur in an open system (primarily heat of vaporization of moisture in the fuel).
heat per unit area Freigesetzte Wärme pro Flächeneinheit Total amount of heat released per unit area as the flaming front of the fire passes.
heat probe DETECTOR DE CALOR Wärmedetektor DETECTEUR DE CHALEUR An apparatus used to detect heat, e.g., on mopup of fires to determine areas needing further control work.
heat release rate VELOCIDAD (TASA) DE DESPRENDIMIENTO DE CALOR Freisetzungsrate von Wärme CHALEUR SPECIFIQUE, INTENSITE D’EMISSION DE CHALEUR (1) The total amount of heat produced per unit mass of fuel consumed per unit of time. (2) The amount of heat released to the atmosphere from the advancing front combustion stage of a fire per unit of time.
heat transfer TRANSMISION DEL CALOR Wärmeübertragung TRANSFERT DE CHALEUR The process by which heat is imparted from one body or object to another. In forest fires, heat energy is transmitted from burning to unburned fuels by: (1) Convection - Transfer of heat by the movement of masses of hot air; the natural direction is upwards in the absence of any appreciable wind speed and/or slope.(2) Radiation - Transfer of heat in straight lines from warm surfaces to cooler surroundings.(3) Conduction - Transfer of heat through solid matter. Note: In forest fires, the transmission of heat may also take place by solid mass or ember transport. This is the transfer of heat resulting from firebrands being transported ahead of a fire by the wind, by gravity (e.g. rolling downhill), or being carried aloft in the convention column or by a fire whirl (i.e., spotting)
heat value PODER CALORIFICO, PODER CALORICO Brennwert ENERGIE DEGAGEE The total heat energy released during combustion, usually published as units of heat energy produced per unit mass of ovendry fuel consumed.
heavy fuel COMBUSTIBLES PESADOS Brennmaterial ab Derbholzstärke COMBUSTI0LES LOURDS Large diameter woody or deep organic material that is difficult to ignite and burn more slowly than fine or medium fuels (cf. medium fuel, fine fuel).
heel (of a fire) see: rear of a fire
Heinselmann classification scheme Feuerregime-Klassifizierung nach Heinselmann A system of six classes for organizing fire regimes according to fire frequency and fire intensity.
held line ["Gehaltene" Feuerfront] A fireline that still contains the fire when mopup is completed (excludes lost lines, natural barriers not suppression fired, and unused secondary lines).
helibase HELIPUERTO, BASE DE HELICOPTEROS Hubschrauberstützpunkt HELl PORT The main location for parking, fueling, maintenance, and loading of helicopters during a fire incident.
helibucket DEPOSITO COLGANTE PARA HELICOPTERO, HELIBALDE Aussenlastbehälter für Löschwasser CITERNE HELl-PORTABLE Specially designed bucket carried by a helicopter like a sling load and used for aerial delivery of fire suppressants or retardants (syn. bucket, cf. water bucket).
helijump SALTO DESDE HELICOPTERO [Freier Absprung aus dem Hubschrauber ohne Fallschirm] SAUT A PARTIR D’HELlCOPTERE A technique for deploying firefighters from helicopters in locations were helicopters cannot land. The method involves a freefall in a protective suit from very low altitude above the ground.
helijumper see: helijump
helipond [ESTANQUE PARA CARGAR HELICOPTEROS (HELIBALDES)] Wasserentnahmestelle für Hubschrauber RESERVE D’EAU POUR HELIPORTAGE A body of water smaller than a lake, sometimes artificially formed, as by damming a stream suitable for hover filling a helibucket.
heliport HELIPUERTO Hubschrauberlandeplatz HELI PORT A permanent or semi-permanent landing spot for one or more helicopters, accessible by road, where fuel, service, and supply can be made available.
helipump [BOMBA PORTATIL PARA HELICOPTERO], MOTOGOMBA HELITRANSPORTADA Feuerlöschpumpe für Hubschraubertransport POMPE LEGERE HELIPORTABLE A lightweight portable pump unit developed for transport by helicopter.
helispot PISTA EVENTUAL PARA HELICOPTERO, HELIPISTA Aussenlandeplatz für Hubschrauber HELIPORT TEMPORAIRE A simple, natural or improved takeoff and landing area intended for temporary or occasional helicopter use close to a fireline for better access for crews and supplies.
helitack UTILIZACION DE HELICOPTEROS, COMBATE CON HELICOPTEROS Löschangriff mit Hubschrauber ATTAQUE PAR HELICOPTERE Initial attack on wildfires by helicopters and firefighter crews, deployed as a complete unit.
helitack crew CUADRILLA HELITRANSPORTADA Hubschrauberlöschtrupp EQUIPE HELIPORTEE A crew of firefighters specially trained in the tactical and logistical use of helicopters for fire suppression.
helitank DEPOSITO DE HELICOPTERO Hubschrauberlöschbehälter RESERVOIR HELlPORTE Specially designed container, generally of fabric or metal, fitted closely to the bottom of a helicopter and used for transporting and dropping suppressants or fire retardants.
helitanker HELICOPTERO CON DEPOSITO, HELICOPTERO CISTERNA Feuerlöschhubschrauber HELICOPTERE AVEC RESERVOIR-CITERNE (1) A helicopter equipped with a helitank; (2) A helicopter-equipped with a fixed container or a suspended bucket-type container that is used for aerial delivery of water or retardants (cf. airtanker).
helitorch DEPOSITIVO HELITRANSPORTADO PARA PROVOCAR QUEMAS Hubschraubergestütztes Entzündungssystem TORCHE HELIPORTEE (1) An aerial ignition device hung from or mounted on a helicopter to disperse ignited gelled gasoline. Used for prescribed burning, including backfires and burnouts (cf. aerial ignition, aerial torch, aerial ignition device, delayed aerial ignition device, ping-pong ball system).
help line LINEA DE CONTROL Bekämpfungslinie (gehaltene) LIGNE D’EXTINCTION ACTIVE All the prepared control line that contains the fire until mopping up is completed; excludes lost line, natural barriers not counterfired, and unused secondary lines.
herbaceous fuels Brennmaterialien Krautschicht Plants, including grasses, or part of plants which contain woody tissue.
high drop DESCARGA ALTA, LANZAMIENTO DE ALTITUD Hoher Abwurf LARGAGE HAUT An air tanker drop made from a higher than normal altitude above the vegetative canopy, ordered for tactical or safety reasons.
high pressure fog NIEBLA A ALTA PRESION Hochdrucknebel BROUILLARD HAUTE PRESSION Small capacity spray jet produced at very high pressures and discharged through a small hose with a gun-type nozzle.
high temperature event (HTE) Hochtemperaturereignis Technical term used in satellite remote sensing to describe active vegetation fires and other hot events at the surface of Earth, such as active volcanoes, coal fires, gas flares, etc. (cf. hotspot).
high-resolution picture transmission (HRPT) High-Resolution Picture Transmission Digital images at 1.1 kilometer resolution provided by NOAAs polar-orbiting environmental satellites, containing all five spectral channels and telemetry data transmitted as high-speed digital transmissions. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) provides the primary imaging system for HRPT.
holding forces FUERZAS DE EXTINCION, PERSONAL DE CONTENCION Löschkräfte FORCES DE RESERVE Resources assigned to do all required fire suppression work following fireline construction but generally not including extensive mopup.
holdover fire Latent brennendes Feuer; "schlafendes” Feuer A fire that remains dormant and undetected for a considerable time after it starts, particularly lightning-caused fires (syn. hangover fire, sleeper fire, overwintering fire).
hose clamp ESTRANGULADOR DE MANGUERA Schlauchklemme A crimping device for stopping the flow of water in a hose.
hose friction Druckverlust im Schlauch Reduction in efficiency of a fire hose (the amount of water pressure lost) due to the resistance between the inside wall of the hose and the water flowing through the hose. The factors affecting friction loss are the velocity of the water through the hose, the roughness of the inner lining of the hose, and the diameter of the hose.
hose lay TENDIDO DE MANGUERA Schlauchleitung ETABLISSEMENT A TERRE Arrangement of connected lengths of fire hose and accessories on the ground, beginning at the first pumping unit and ending at the point of water delivery.
hose reel Schlauchtrommel für Schnellangriffsvorrichtung A rotating drum used for winding booster hose (normally) for storing and dispensing.
hoseline tee BIFURCACION EN T Verteiler RACCORD EN T A fitting that may be installed between lengths of hose to provide an independently controlled outlet for a branch line.
hot spotting ATAQUE A LOS FOCOS MAS FUERTES, ATAQUE A FOCO CRITICO [Proritärer Löschangriff an kritischen Bereichen des Feuers] ATTAQUE DE POINTS MENACANTS see: fire suppression
hotshot crew CUADRILLA, BRIGADA DE SELECCION Waldbrand-Spezialeinheit EQUIPE D’ATTAQUE An intensively trained firefighting crew used primarily in hand line construction and for initial attack (cf. initial attack).
hotspot (INCENDIO), FOCO MUY FUERTE, FOCO CRITICO [(1) Kritischer (besonders intensiver) Bereich eines Feuers; (2) glühender bzw. schwelender Brandherd, der Nachlöschen erfordelich macht; (3) umgangssprachliche Bezeichnung für ein Hochtemperaturereignis]; (4) Krisenregion POINT MENACANT (1) A particularly active part of a fire; (2) A small area of smouldering or glowing combustion located on or within the fire perimeter; a term commonly used during the mop-up stage of a fire; (3) Popular term for a High-Temperature Event (HTE) depicted by satellite remote seensing (cf. High-Temperature Event); (4) Area or region characterized by critical or dangerous developments, e.g. a region with a high occurrence of destructive fires.
hover VUELO ESTACIONARIO Schwebeflug (Hubschrauber) VOL STATIONNAIRE A stationary in-flight condition for helicopters when no directional flight is achieved.
hoverfill [LLENADO DE DEPOSITO DE UN HELICOPTERO EN VUELO] Wasseraufnahme durch Hubschrauber. (2) Wasserentnahmestelle für Hubschrauber REMPLISSAGE EN VOL STATIONNAIRE, SOURCE POUR REMPLISSAGE EN VOL STATIONNAIRE (1) The process by with a helicopter fills a helibucket while hovering above the water source. (2) The water source itself.
hoverfill tank Wasservorratsbehälter für Wasseraufnahme durch Hubschrauber Large, portable tank from which helitankers can hoverfill.
human-caused fire INCENDIO CAUSADO POR EL HOMBRE Waldbrandursache: Mensch INCENDIE ANTHROPIQUE Any wildland fire (usually in the context of wildfire causes) caused by human carelessness or malicious use of fire (syn. people-caused fire, person-caused fire; outdated term: man-caused fire).
human-caused risk FACTOR DE RIESGO DE ORIGEN HUMANO Risiko der Waldbrandentstehung durch Menschen RISQUE ANTHROPIQUE In the US National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS): A number related to the expected number of firebrands originating from human activities which a protection unit will be exposed to during the rating day (cf. National Fire Danger Rating System; man-caused risk, risk index).
humidity Feuchtigkeit, Luftfeuchtigkeit The condition of the atmosphere with regard to its water-vapour content.
humidity sensor Feuchtigkeitsmesser, -sensor A device used to measure relative humidity in electronic weather stations (cf. psychrometer).
humus Humus Layer (H-Layer) of decomposed organic matter on the forest floor beneath the fermentation layer (F-Layer) and directly above the soil (cf. H-Layer, litter).
humus-layer (H-Layer) see: humus
hydrocarbons Kohlenwasserstoffe Any chemical class of compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon; formed also by combustion of vegetative matter.
hydrogen Wasserstoff Colourless, odourless, inflammable gas, which combines chemically with oxygen to form water; formed also by combustion of vegetative matter.
hydrophobicity Hydrophobie Resistance to wetting exhibited by some soils, also called water repellency. The phenomenon may occur naturally or may be fire-induced.
hygrograph Hygrograph A continuous-recording hygrometer (cf. hygrometer, psychrometer).
hygrometer Feuchtigkeitsmesser, Hygrometer An instrument for measuring the water vapour content of the air (cf. hygrograph, psychrometer).
hygrothermograph TERMOHIGROGRAFO, HIGROTERMOGRAFO Thermohygrograph HYGROTHERMOGRAPHE A recording instrument combining, on one record, the variation of atmospheric temperature and humidity content as a function of time (cf. thermograph).
identification run PASADA DE IDENTIFICACION, PASADA DE REC0NOCIMIENTO Identifizierungsanflug PASSAGE D’IDENTIFICATION A pass over the target area by the lead aircraft to indicate the desired flight path and target of an air tanker, while the air tanker pilot is observing.
ignition Entzündung The initiation of combustion.
ignition energy Entzündungsenergie The quantity of heat or electrical energy that must be absorbed to ignite and burn.
ignition method : Entzündungsmethode The means by which a fire is ignited, such as hand-held drip torch, helitorch, and backpack propane tanks.
ignition pattern MODELO DE ENCENDIDO Entzündungstechnik, -muster PARAMETRES D’ALLUMAGE (FEU CONTROLE The manner in which a prescribed burn, backfire, or burnout is set, determined by weather, fuel, ignition system, topographic and other factors having an influence on fire behaviour and the objective of the burn. Several methods are commonly used: Angled Strip Ignition - The setting of a number of lines of fire on an area at an angle to the wind. The effect is to create lines of fire with attributes of both a head fire and a flank fire. Area Ignition - The setting of a number of individual fires throughout an area either simultaneously or in quick succession and so spaced that they soon coalesce, influence, and support each other to produce a hot, fast-spreading fire throughout the area. Area Grid Ignition - The setting of a number of individual fires throughout an area so spaced that they will spread independently over most of the area before finally reinforcing one another. (syn. Spot Ignition). Backfire Ignition - The setting of a line of fire so that it will burn away from a control line against the wind or downhill. Centre Fire Ignition (Centre Firing) - The setting of fires in the centre of an area or concentrated to create a central convection column with additional fires set progressively and less concentrated near the outer control lines. As indrafts develop they draw the fire toward the centre (syn. Convection Burning). Flank Fire Ignition - The setting of a line of fire along a line parallel to the wind with the fire spreading at right angles to the wind or across a slope. Head Fire Ignition - The setting of a line of fire so that it will burn with the wind or upslope away from a control line. Maple Leaf Ignition - The setting of lines of fire progressively from the apex of a ridge point and proceeding downhill. Used in hilly areas to burn knolls or ridges where slope is the main influence on fire spread. The effect is to have flank fires radiating from the central hilltop (syn. Chevron Burn). Strip Fire Ignition - The setting of successive parallel strips of fire (progressing outward toward the perimeter of the area), each one burning adjacent to the strip previously burned. May be used for backfires, flank fires, or head fires.
ignition probability INDICE DE IGNICION, PROBABILIDAD DE IGNICION Entzündungswahrscheinlichkeit PROBABILITE D’ALLUMAGE Chance that a firebrand will cause an ignition when it lands on receptive fuels.
ignition temperature Entzündungstemperatur The minimum temperature at which ignition can take place and sustained combustion can occur (cf. kindling point).
ignition time [Verzugszeit zwischen Entzündung und anhaltendem Brennvorgang] Time between application of an ignition source and self-sustained combustion of a fuel.
impeller RODETE Pumpenflügelrad ROMET DE POMPE Rotating part of a centrifugal pump which imparts energy to the liquid to be moved. For shearing purposes, the impeller is on a rotating shaft within the body of liquid.
in-stand wind Windgeschwindigkeit im Waldbestand (auf Augenhöhe) Windspeed within a stand at about eye level (cf. mid-flame windspeed).
incendiary (fire) INCENDIO INTENCIONAL, INCENDIO INTENCIONADO Durch Brandstiftung verursachtes Feuer FEU D’INCENDIAIRE see: fire cause (syn. arson fire, cf. arson)
incident INCENDIO, [INCIDENTE] Feuerereignis (ICS) SINISTRE An occurrence either human-caused or natural phenomenon (in this terminology incident means wildfire), that requires action or support by emergency service personnel to prevent or minimize loss of life or damage to property and/or natural resources (element of the Incident Command System [ICS]).
incident action plan PLAN DE EXTINCION, PLAN DE ACCION Planung der Feuerbekämpfung (ICS) PLAN D’EXTINCTION Document initially prepared at the first planning meeting, containing general fire suppression objectives reflecting overall strategy for the incident and specific suppression and rescue action plans for the next operational period (element of the Incident Command System [ICS]).
incident base PUESTO DE MANDO Stützpunkt (ICS) BUREAU DES AFFAIRES Location at the incident where the primary logistics functions are coordinated and administered. (Incident name or other designator will be added to the term Base.) The incident command post may be collocated with the base. There is only one Base per incident (element of the Incident Command System [ICS]).
incident command post PUESTO DE MANDO Einsatzzentrale (ICS) POSTE DE COMMANDEMENT That location at which the primary command functions are executed and usually colocated with the incident base (element of the Incident Command System [ICS]).
Incident Command System (ICS) [System des Katastrophenmanagements (ICS)] A standardized on-scene emergency management concept specifically designed to allow its user(s) to adopt an integrated organizational structure equal to the complexity and demands of single or multiple incidents, without being hindered by jurisdictional boundaries. (element of the Incident Command System [ICS])
incident commander DIRECTOR TECNICO DEL INCENDIO, JEFE DE INCENDIO [Leiter des Incident Command System] COMMANDANT AU FEU Individual responsible for the management of all incident operations at the incident site (element of the Incident Command System [ICS]).
incident support organization [Organsiation zur Unterstützung des Incident Command System] Any off-incident support provided to an incident. Examples would be agency dispatch centers, airports, mobilization centers, etc. (element of the Incident Command System [ICS]).
incident weather forecast Feuerwetter-Vorhersage Special fire weather forecast for a specific fire incident prepared by a meteorologist on site at or near the incident area (element of the Incident Command System [ICS]).
increaser REDUCCION, AUMENTADOR Übergangsstück REDUCTION (DE RACCORD) Increasing coupling used on hose, pump, or nozzles to permit connection of a larger size of hose.
incremental drop DESCARGA EN TREN, LANZAMIENTO EN SECUENCIA Gestaffelter Abwurf LARGAGE SUCCESSIF Air tanker drop in which tank doors are opened in sequence so that the fire suppressant cascades continuously (syn. string drop, trail drop; cf. salvo).
independent crown fire Kronenfeuer, unabhängig vom einem Bodenfeuer see: forest fire (syn. running crown fire)
indirect attack ATAQUE INDIRECTO Indirekter Löschangriff AMENAGEMENT DEFENSIVE IMPROVISE EN AVANT DE LA LIGNE DE FEU see: fire suppression (cf. direct attack; parallel attack)
indirectly visible area ZONA INDIRECTAMENTE VISIBLE [Durch toten Winkel verdeckte Überwachungsfläche] ZONE DE VISIBILITE INDIRECTE Ground, or the vegetation growing thereon, that is not directly visible to a fixed point lookout but lies at not more than a specified depth (91 meters) below the lookout's line of sight.
individual assignment [DISTRIBUCION INDIVIDUAL DE TRABAJOS] [Individueller Einsatz von Löschkräften] TACHE INDIVIDUELLE In fire suppression, a method of managing personnel whereby firefighters are assigned individually to designated lengths of the fire edge for hot-spotting, constructing control line, backfiring, and mopup, as neccessary (cf. man-passing-man).
industry crew CUADRILLA DE OBREROS FORESTALES [Externe Betriebsfeuerwehr bzw. -löschmannschaft] EQUIPE MIXTE Fire crew composed of mill, forestry, or construction workers.
information officer RESPONSABLE DE INFORMACION AL PUBLICO Presseoffizier, Pressesprecher OFFICIER CHARGE DE PRESSE A staff officer in a fire suppression organization responsible for information releases to the public on a fire situation.
infrared (IR) groundlink TRANSMISION DE IMAGENES DE INFRARROJOS Bodenstation/Bodenverbindung zur Übertragung von IR-Bildmaterial CAPTEUR TERRESTRE MOBILE DE RECEPTION INFRA ROUGE Capability to receive air-to-ground IR imagery at an incident.
infrared (IR) imagery Infrarot-Bild Imagery created by optical-electronic equipment utilizing the infrared wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. IR imagery is used through dense smoke, haze, and vegetation canopy to (1) detect the incidence of wildfires in remote terrain, especially following lightning storms, (2) map the perimeters, hot spots, and spot fires of going fires, and (3) detect residual heat sources during mopup. Generally, the first two uses employ IR scanners in aircraft while the third use employs hand-held IR scanners on the ground or in slow-flying helicopters (syn. thermal imagery).
infrared radiation Infrarotstrahlung Electromagnetic radiation whose wavelength falls between 0.7 to 1000 micrometers (longer than visible light, shorter than microwaves). Remote sensing instruments work by sensing radiation that is naturally emitted or reflected, or by sensing signals transmitted from a satellite and reflected back to it.
infrared scanner Infrarotscanner An optical-electronic system for identifying or obtaining imagery of thermal infrared radiation to detect non-smoking fires or fire perimeters through smoke. May also be used for fire mapping. The system may be operated from an aircraft, or hand-held on the ground.
inhibition INHIBICION DE LA COMBUSTION INIBIZIONE Brandhemmung EXTINCTION (PAR MOYEN) CHIMIQUE Process of extinguishing fire by the use of an agent that interrupts the chemical reactions in the combustion process.
initial attack PRIMER ATAQUE, ATAQUE INICIAL Erstangriff ATTAQUE INITIALE The actions taken by the first resources to arrive at a wildfire to protect lives and property, and prevent further extension of the fire, either by air or by ground suppression (cf. hotshot crew).
initial attack base Stützpunkt für den Einsatz von Erstangriffskräften Any place where initial attack capability has been positioned in readiness for probable fire action. The forces must have air and/or ground transport capability on site.
initial attack crew Einsatzkräfte für den Erstangriff A crew specially hired, trained, equipped, and deployed to conduct initial attack on wildfires within the first burning period.
initial attack fire [Durch Erstangriff unter Kontrolle gebrachtes Feuer] Fire that is generally contained by the attack units first dispatched, without a significant augmentation of reinforcements, within two hours after initial attack, and full control is expected within the first burning period.
initial spread index (ISI) see: Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index Table
inmate crew [CUADRILLA DE PRESOS], BRIGADA PENAL [Löschmannschaft aus Gefängnisinsassen] BRIGADE DE DETENUS Any fire crew composed of prison inmates.
inside diameter Innendurchmesser Internal diameter of a tube, conductor, or coupling as distinguished from its outside diameter. Fire hose sizes are classified by nominal internal diameter.
insolation Insolation, Sonneneinnstrahlung Solar radiation received at the earth's surface.
instability Atmosphärische Instabilität A state of the atmosphere in which the vertical distribution of temperature is such that an air particle, if given either an upward or downward impulse, will tend to move vertically away with increasing speed from its original level (cf. atmospheric stability).
intake hose see: suction hose
integrated forest fire management (IFFM) Integriertes Feuer-Management Designation of fire management systems which include one or both of the following concepts of integration: (1) Integration of prescribed natural or human-caused wildfires and/or planned application of fire in forestry and other land-use systems in accordance with the objectives of prescribed burning; (2) Integration of the activities and the use of the capabilities of the rural populations (communities, individual land users) to meet the overall objectives of land management, vegetation (forest) protection, and smoke management (community-based fire management). The term IFFM is common for fire management approaches in less developed regions including forest and non-forest ecosystems. Note: In case of absence of forests in the area concerned the term Integrated Fire Management (IFM) is used instead (cf. prescribed burning).
intensity see: fire intenisty
interface zone (I-zone) see: wildland/urban (residential) interface
intermittent crown fire Diskontinuierliches Kronenfeuer see: forest fire (syn. passive crown fire)
intermittent smoke HUMO INTERMITENTE [Unregelmässig sichtbarer Rauch] FUMEE INTERMITTENTE Smoke which becomes visible only at intervals.
international fire crew Internationale Feuerbrigade A fire suppression crew specially trained for deployment in foreign countries for mutual fire disaster management assistance.
interregional fire crew [CUADRILLA ESPECIALIZADA], [BRIGADA-INTERREGIONAL] Überregional einsetzbare Löschkräfte A highly trained fire suppression crew than can be deployed in various regions (provinces) of a country.
intolerable loss DANOS, NIVEL NO TOLERABLE DE DANOS Schadensschwelle (nicht tolerierbarer Verlust) PERTE INTOLERABLE Level of damage or loss greater than that which may be sustained by a given resource, cultural or natural, and still achieve management goals.
inversion INVERSION TERMICA Inversion INVERSION [Meteorology] The atmospheric condition in which temperature within a vertical layer of air increases with altitude, resulting in a very stable atmosphere (this is contrary to the usual situation in which temperature decreases with height). The inhibition of vertical motion in the atmosphere allows the buildup of fire-generated smoke pollution - a common occurrence in the early morning hours during the fire season (syn. zemperature inversion, cf. atmospheric stability).
island ZONA SIN QUEMAR DENTRO DEL INCENDIO, ISLA Insel [vom Feuer ausgesparte Teilfläche] ZONE NON BRULEE see: forest fire
isobar Isobare A charted line (e.g., on a synoptic map) connecting points of equal atmospheric pressure.
isotherm Isotherme A charted line (e.g., on a synoptic map) connecting points of equal atmospheric temperature.
isothermal layer Isotherme Luftschicht Atmospheric layer through which temperature remains constant with elevation.
jettison DESCARGAR, BOTAR LA CARGA Schnellabwurf, Notabwurf DELESTAGE Drop of an unused load of water or fire retardant from an aircraft or helicopter (syn. abort).
jump fire see: spot fire
jump spot AREA DE SALTO DESDE HELICOPTERO [Lande-, Absetzplatz für Feuerspringer] CIBLE POUR PERSONNEL HELIPORTE Selected landing area for smokejumpers.
jump step RAMPA DE SALTO DESDE HELICOPTERO, PISADERA DE SALTO [Trittstufe für den Absprung aus einem Hubschrauber] MARCHE DE SAUT An approved step mounted on a helicopter for helijumping.
jump suit EQUIPO DE SALTO Springerkombination EQUIPEMENT DE SAUT Approved protection suit worn for smokejumping.
jurisdiction JURISDICCION Zuständigkeitsbereich JURIDICTION, CIRCONSCRIPTION JURIDIQUE The range or sphere of authority. In fire management: the geographical area for which a single agency, or an administrative unit of an agency, is responsible for providing fire protection.
jurisdictional agency SERVICIO COMPETENTE, ORGANISMO COMPETENTE Zuständige Behörde CIRCONSCRIPTION DE FEU The agency having fire protection jurisdiction for a specific geographical area
Keetch-Byram drought index (KBDI) [Eigenname] Commonly-used drought index adapted for fire management applications, with a numerical range from 0 (no moisture deficiency) to 800 (maximum drought)
kilopascal (kPa) Kilopascal (kPa) Atmospheric pressure is equivalent to the weight of air above a given area on the Earth's surface or within its atmosphere. This pressure is usually expressed in millibars (one mb equals 1,000 dynes per square centimetre) or in kilopascals (kPa; one kPa equals 10,000 dynes per square centimetre).
kindling point Brennpunkt Lowest temperature at which sustained combustion can be initiated for a specified substance (syn. ignition temperature).
knock down APAGAR, REDUCIR LA INTENSIDAD Niederkämpfen AFFAIBLIR UN INCENDIE To reduce the flame or heat on the more vigorously burning parts of a fire edge.
knot Knoten Measure of speed: Nautical miles per hour. 1 knot is equal to 1.852 km per hour.
ladder fuel COMBUSTIBLES CONTINUOS EN VERTICAL, COMBUSTIBLES DE ENLACE Feuerbrücke, Feuerleiter [Brennmaterial, das Bodenfeuer in den Kronenraum trägt] COMBUSTIBLES ETAGES Fuels which provide vertical continuity between strata and allow fire to carry from surface fuels into the crowns of trees or shrubs (torching, crowning) and support continuation of crown fires (cf. crown fuel, ground fuel, surface fuel).
land occupancy fire FUEGO PARA ROTURAR, INCENDIO CAUSADO POR USO DE LA TIERRA Feuerursache Landerschliessung INCENDIE D’ACTIVITES HUMAINES Fire started as a result of land occupancy for agricultural purposes, plantation and industrial establishment, construction, maintenance and use of rights-of-way, and residences, except equipment use and smoking.
landsat Landsat-Satellit Land Remote-Sensing Satellite series designed to gather data on the Earth's resources in a regular and systematic manner. Objectives of the misssion are: land use inventory, geological/mineralogical exploration, crop and forestry assessment, and cartography. Landsat has a spatial resolution of 28.5 meters and allows reconnaissance of active fires and burned vegetation.
lapse rate GRADIENTE VERTICAL Temperaturabnahme (-gradient) GRADIENT VERTICAL DE TEMPERATURE Decrease of an atmospheric variable (temperature unless specified otherwise) with height.
large fire GRAN INCENDIO, INCENDIO DE MAGNITUD Grossfeuer GRAND FEU For statistical purposes, a fire burning more than a specified area of land, e.g. 100 ha (USA) or 200 ha (Russia).
late burning QUEMA DE OTONO [Kontrolliertes Brennen gegen Ende der Trockenzeit] BRULAGE TARDIF D’AUTOMOVE Prescribed burning activities towards the end of the dry season.
late drop DESCARGA RETRASADA, LANZAMIENTO TARDIO (O LARGO) Verspäteter (verfehlter) Abwurf LARGAGE LONG Fire retardant dropping beyond the designated target.
lead in SENALIZACION Einweisen GUIDAGE SUR LA CIBLE Means of identifying a target in which the air tanker follows the lead plane to the target.
lead plane AVION DE RECONOCIMIENTO, AVION GUIA Führungsflugzeug; Leitflugzeug (1) AVION DU CHEF (2) CHEF DE NORIA Aircraft used to make trial runs over the target area to check wind and smoke conditions and topography and to lead air tankers to specific targets and supervise their drops (syn. bird dog).
leapfrog method [Aufbau einer Bekämpfungslinie durch Überspingen mit Spezialgerät] A system of organizing workers in fire suppression in which each crew member is assigned a specific task such as clearing or digging fireline on a specific section of control line, and when that task is completed, passes other workers in moving to a new assignment (cf. moveup method).
let burn see: prescribed fire
lifting processes Any of the processes that lead to upward vertical motion in the atmosphere. These processes may include low level convergence, heating or thermal convection, orographic lifting over the mountains, and frontal lifting.
light burn QUEMA SUPERFICIAL, QUEMA LIVIANA Feuer geringer Intensität BRULAGE LEGER Degree of burn which leaves the soil covered with partially charred organic material; heavy fuels are not deeply charred.
light fuel Feines, schnell austrocknendes Brennmaterial Fast-drying fuels, generally with a comparatively high surface area-to-volume ratio, which are less than 0.64 cm in diameter and have a timelag of 1 hour or less. These fuels readily ignite and are rapidly consumed by fire when dry (cf. timelag).
lightning fire INCENDIO CAUSADO POR RAYOS Blitzschlagfeuer FEU DE FOUDRE A wildfire caused directly or indirectly by lightning.
lightning fire occurrence index INDICE DE CAUSALIDAD POR RAYOS Blitzschlagfeuer-Index INDICE DE RISQUE DE FEU DE FOUDRE Numerical rating of the potential occurrence of lightning-caused fires (part of the U.S. National Fire Danger Rating System - NFDRS).
lightning locator system see: Automatic Lightning Detection System (ALDS).
lightning risk Risiko der Entstehung von Blitzschlag A number related to the expected number of cloud-to-ground lightning strokes to which a protection unit is expected to be exposed during the rating period; the Lightning Risk value used in the occurrence index includes an adjustment for lightning activity experienced during the previous day to account for possible holdover fires (part of the U.S. National Fire Danger Rating System - NFDRS).
lightning risk scaling factor FACTOR DE PONDERACION DEL RIESGO POR RAYOS [Skalierungsfaktor von Blitzschlagrisiko] ECHELLE DE RISQUE DE FEU DE FOUDRE Factor derived from local thunderstorm and lightning-caused fire records that adjusts predictions of the basic lightning fire occurrence model to local experience, accounting for factors not addressed directly by the model (e.g., susceptibility of local fuels to ignition by lightning, fuel continuity, topography, regional characteristics of thunderstorms).
limited action fire [Feuer unter eingeschränkter Bekämpfung] A fire that is receiving little or no suppression action, especially beyond initial attack, because of resource management priorities, fire load or other agency constraints.
limited action zone Any predetermined area within an agency's jurisdiction where fires will be allowed to burn without full suppression effort to control. Fires may receive initial attack in some situations but follow up after escape is always limited. Such a zone is generally established formally to recognize low values-at-risk or other agency constraints.
limited containment CONTROL PARCIAL Eingrenzen eines kontrollierten Feuers CONTROLE PARTIEL Halting of fire spread at the head, or that portion of the flanks of a prescribed fire that is threatening to exceed prescription criteria, and ensuring that this spread rate will not be encountered again; does not necessarily indicate mopup.
line camp Camp in Nähe der Feuerfront A camp with basic facilities established along or near a fireline to accommodate and supply personnel actively engaged in fire suppression or mop-up work (does not include base camp).
line cutter [Angehöriger der Feuercrew, die die Feuerbekämpfungslinie freischneidet] Fire crew member in the progressive method of line construction who cuts and clears away brush, small saplings, vines, and other obstructions in the path of the fireline; usually equipped with ax or brush hook (cf. progressive method of line construction).
line firing PRENDER CONTRAFUEGO, ENCENDIDO EN LINEA [Anlegen eines Feuers entlang des Kontrollstreifens bzw. der Bekämpfungslinie] LIGNE DE FEU TACTIQUE Setting fire to only the border fuel immediately adjacent to the control line.
line holding SOFOCAR EL INCENDIO, SOSTENIMENTO DE LA LINEA Halten der Bekämpfungslinie TENUE DE LA LIGNE FEU Ensuring that the established fireline has completely stopped fire progress.
line ignition Streifweises (in kontinuierlicher Linie) Entzünden von Feuer LIGNE DE MISE A FEU Setting a line of fire in a continuous line (e.g., a backing fire) as opposed to individual spots.
liquid concentrate RETARDANTE CONCENTRADO LIQUIDO Flüssiges Konzentrat (brandhemmendes Mittel) RETARDANT CONCENTRE Liquid phosphate fertilizers used as fire retardants, usually diluted three to five times prior to application.
litter HOJARASCA Streu LITIERE The top layer (L-Layer) of the forest floor directly above the fermentation layer (F-Layer), composed mainly of recently fallen leaves and pine needles, but also includes dead twigs, bark fragments, etc. (cf. duff, fermentation layer, humus)
live burning QUEMA DE RESTOS DE CORTA, QUEMA DE DESECHOS VERDES Brennen von frischem Schlagabraum (progressiv) BRULAGE IMMEDIAT DE VEGETAUX COUPES, BRULAGE AU FUR ET A MESURE The burning of green slash progressively as it is cut.
live fuel Grünes (lebendes) Brennmaterial Ratio of the amount of water to the amount of dry plant material in living plants.
live fuel moisture content Feuchtigkeitsgehalt von frischem Brennmaterial Living plants, such as trees, grasses, and shrubs, in which the seasonal moisture content cycle is controlled largely by internal physiological mechanisms, rather than by external weather influences (syn. living fuel, cf. dead fuel, green fuel).
live herbaceous moisture content Feuchtigkeitsgehalt der Krautschicht (-Pflanzen) Ratio of the amount of water to the amount of dry plant material in herbaceous plants, i.e., grasses and forbs.
live line [MANGUERA PREALIMENTADA], TIRA ARMADA CONDOTTA PRONTA ALL'USO Druckschlauch (angeschlagen und einsatzbereit) LIGNE SOUS PRESSION (TUYAUX) (1) A hose line or reel on a fire engine, carried preconnected to the pump, ready for use without making connections to pump or attaching nozzle (syn. live reel). (2) A charged line containing water under pressure.
live reel see: live line
live run [Anlauf/Anflug zum Löschmittelabwurf] Air tanker has the target in sight and will make a drop on this run over the target.
live woody moisture content Feuchtigkeitsgehalt von holziger Biomasse Ratio of the amount of water to the amount of dry plant material in shrubs.
living fuel see: live fuel
load and hold REGRESAR A LA BASE Y ESPERAR CARGADO, CARGUE Y MANTENGA [Wasserbomber: Auftanken und auf Bereitschaft verbleiben] CHARGER ET ATTENDRE An order given to the airtanker pilot to pick up another load of retardant or water and hold at the reload base. The tanker is still committed to the fire.
load and return ORDEN DE UNA NUEVA DESCARGA, CARGUE Y VUELVA [Wasserbomber: Auftanken und neuer Anlauf] CHARGER ET REVENIR SUR LE FEU Order given to the air tanker pilot to pick up another load of fire retardant or water and return to the fire.
local agency SERVICIO LOCAL, ORGANISMO LOCAL Lokale Organisationen bzw. zuständige Behörde SERVICE LOCAL Any agency having jurisdictional responsibility for all or part of an incident (ICS).
local fire model Lokales Feuermodell Fire behaviour model aimed at predicting the quasi steady evolution of a small section of the fire front, under statistically homogenous and constant local fuelbed and ambient conditions.
local responsibility area [ZONA (AREA) DE RESPONSABILIDAD LOCAL] Lokale Zuständigkeit für die Landbewirtschaftung ZONE DE RESPONSABILITE Lands on which neither the federal nor the state (province, etc.) government has any legal responsibility for providing fire protection.
local winds VIENTOS LOCALES Lokale Winde VENTS LOCAUX Winds which are generated over a comparatively small area by local terrain and weather.
lofting plume Plume injected into an environment above an inversion but allows mixing upwards.
logging debris Schlagabraum Parts of trees remaining after harvest, including tree crowns, unutilized logs, and uprooted stumps.
long-range forecast PREDICCION (PRONOSTICO) A LARCO PLAZO Langfristprognose (langfristige Wettervorhersage) PREVISION A LONG TERME Fire weather forecast for a period greater than five days in advance.
long-range spotting Entzündung durch Flugfeuer über eine größere Distanz Ignition of spotfires by large glowing firebrands carried high into the convection column and then fall out downwind beyond the main fire starting new fires (cf. spot fire, spotting).
long-term fire danger PELIGRO DE INCENDIOS A LARGO PLAZO Feuergefährdung (langfristig) DANGER D’INCENDIE A LONGUE ECHEANCE The resultant of factors influencing long-term variability of fire danger; required for long-term planning and involving consideration of past records and conditions and modeled future trends.
long-term retardant RETARDANTE DE EFECTO PROLONGADO Brandhemmendes Mittel (langfristig wirkend) RETARDANT A LONG TERME A substance that by chemical or physical action reduces the flammability of combustibles and remains effective after application, even after water content has evaporated.
lookout VIGILANTE, TORRERO, (2) TORRE DE OBSERVACION, PUESTO DE OBSERVACION (3) VIGIA (1) Ausguck, (2) Feuerwachturm, (3) Feuerbeobachter (1) OBSERVATEUR, (2) OBSERVATOIRE (1) A person designated to detect and report fires from a fixed vantage point (lookout observe. (2) A location and associated structures from which fires can be detected and reported (lookout station). (3) A member of a fire crew designated to observe the fire and warn the crew when there is danger of becoming trapped (syn. fire lookout).
lookout cupola see: lookout house
lookout dispatcher VIGILANTE-COORDINADOR, TORRERO-DESPACHADOR [Ausguck mit Funktion als Einsatzleiter] VIGIE COORDONNATRICE A person combining the functions of lookout and dispatcher.
lookout firefighter VIGILANTE-COMBATIENTE, TORRERO-COMBATIENTE [Ausguck mit Funktion als Feuerwehrmann] POMPIER VIGIE Person combining the functions of lookout and firefighter.
lookout house CASETA DE VIGILANCIA, TORRE DE OBSERVACION CON CASA Beobachtungshütte, Beobachtungskanzel VIGIE FIXE-OBSERVATOIRE A small structure normally constructed with windows permitting an unobstructed view on all sides, but not designed for living quarters. It may be located on a lookout tower, or other artificial or natural elevation (in Canada syn. lookout cupola and lookout cabin, cf. tower cupola).
lookout patrol VIGILANTE MOVIL, TORRERO VIGILANTE MOVIL Waldbrandstreife, -patrouille OBSERVATEUR PATROUILLEUR Person (sometimes group of persons) who travels along ridges or other vantage points to discover, detect, report, and suppress fires.
lookout point PUESTO DE VIGILANCIA, PUNTO DE OBSERVACION Beobachtungsstelle POINT D’OBSERVATION DES INCENDIES A vantage point selected for fire detection or observation.
lookout tower TORRE DE VIGILANCIA, (OBSERVACION) Feuerwachturm TOUR DE GUET Structure that elevates a person above nearby obstructions to sight for fires; generally capped by some sort of house or cupola (syn. fire tower, tower cupola; cf. lookout house).
lopping TROCEAR, DESRAME (1) Zerkleinern von Brennmaterial; (2) Schneiteln FACCONAGE (1) After felling, cutting branches, tops, and unwanted boles into lengths such that resultant logging debris will lie close to the ground. (2) Cutting of live leaves from standing trees for domestic livestock fodder (common technique in tropical countries to overcome shortages in pasture resources; historically common in Europe).
lost line LINEA DE DEFENSA (FUEGO) REBASADA Bekämpfungslinie, aufgegebene LIGNE PERDUE Any part of a control line that fails to stop the spread of a fire.
low Tiefdruckgebiet An area of relatively low atmospheric pressure in which winds tend to move in a counterclockwise direction, spiraling in toward the low’s center
low expansion Schwerschaum Foam with an expansion between 1:1 and 20:1.
low intensity fire Feuer mit geringer Intensität Fire which burns with a relatively low intensity, e.g. a prescribed surface fire as opposed to a high-intensity crown fire.
macroclimate MACROCLIMA Makroklima MACROCLIMAT Any climatic condition in a relatively large area as distinguished from the smaller scale mesoclimate and microclimate.
male coupling RACOR MACHO, COPLA MACHO Einsteckkupplungsteil, Kupplungsteil mit Aussengewinde RACCORD MALE An externally threaded hose nipple which fits in the thread of a female (internally threaded) swivel coupling of the same pitch and diameter. Nozzles and other appliances attach to this type of coupling.
man-caused fire see: human-caused fire
man-caused risk (MCR) see: human-caused risk
man-passing-man AVANCE ALTERNADO [Überspringen beim Aufbau einer Bekämpfungslinie] EXTINCTION PAR DEPASSEMENT, COORDINATION DES Method of managing personnel on fire suppression whereby each worker is assigned a specific task (e.g., clearing or digging on a specific section of the control line) and, having completed that task, passes other workers in moving to a new assignment (cf. individual assignment, progressive method of line construction).
man-up see: manning action
management by objectives Zielorientiertes Management In Incident Command System (ICS), this is a top-down management activity which involves a three-step process to achieve the incident goal. The steps are: establishing the incident objectives, selection of appropriate strategy(s) to achieve the objectives; and the tactical direction associated with the selected strategy. Tactical direction includes: selection of tactics, selection of resources, resource assignments and performance monitoring.
manning action [Personalzuteilung nach tagesaktuellen Erfodernissen] The daily or short-term adjustments in the strength and positioning of fire suppression resources required for initial attack to meet a predetermined level of preparedness based on the likelihood of fire occurrence and probable fire behaviour as determined by the forecasted fire danger. This may involve increasing (i.e., man-up) or decreasing (i.e., man-down) the number and types of suppression crews and equipment (cf. man-up).
maple leaf (fire) ignition [Entzündungsmuster mit Konturen eines Ahornblattes] A prescribed burning ignition pattern which is sheaped like a maple leaf. This technique is used in hilly areas to fire ridge points or ridge ends. Lines of fire are started simultaneously from the apex of a ridge point, and progress downhill (see: ignition pattern).
marine air AIRE MARINO Ozeanische Luftmasse, Seeluft INFLUENCE MARITIME Air which has a high moisture content and the temperature characteristics of an ocean surface due to extensive exposure to that surface. An intrusion of marine air will moderate fire conditions. Absence of marine air in coastal areas may lead to more severe fire danger.
marine climate CLIMA MARITIMO Ozeanisches Klima CLIMAT MARITIME Regional climate under the predominant influence of the sea, that is, a climate characterized by marine air; the opposite of a continental climate(syn. oceanic climate).
mass fire FUEGO DE ALTA ENERGIA, INCENDIO MASIVO [Grossbrand hoher Intensität durch Mehrfachzündung] INCENDIE GENERALISE A fire resulting from many simultaneous ignitions that generates a high level of energy output (cf. extreme fire behavior, conflagration).
mass transport [Weiterleitung der Feuerhitze durch Flugfeuer] Heat carried ahead of the fire in the form of firebrands.
master fire chronology REGISTRO CRONOLOGICO DE INCENDIOS Feuerchronik eines Gebietes (Bestand, Landschaft, etc.) CHRONOLOGIE DES PRINCIPAUS FEUX Chronological listing of the dates of fires documented in a designated area, the dates being corrected by crossdating. Size of the area must be specified.
mattock “Mattock”-Haue Hand tool with a narrow hoeing surface at one end of the blade and a pick or cutting blade at the other end; used for digging and grubbing.
McLeod tool RASTRILLO McLEOD McLeod-Haue RATEAU McLEOD A short-handled combination hoe, or cutting tool and rake, with or without removable blades (Note: The Canadian Moberley tool is a similar firefighting tool with shorter teeth and a narrower cutting edge.
mean fire interval PERIODO MEDIO SIN INCENDIOS Durchschnittliches Feuerinterval (Rückkehrintervall) PERIODICITE MOYENNE DES FEUX The arithmetic mean of all fire intervals derermined in a designated area during a designated time period; the size of the area and the time period must be specified (units: years) (syn. mean fire return interval, mean fire-free interval).
mean fire-free interval see: mean fire interval
mean fire-return interval see: mean fire interval
mean sea level (MSL) NIVEL MEDIO DEL MAR Mittlere Meereshöhe; Normal Null (NN) NIVEAU MOYEN DE LA MER Height of the sea surface averaged over all stages of the tide over a long period of time, to which all terrestrial elevations and submarine depths are referred.
Mechanized Trail PISTAS PARA TODO TERRENO, CAMINO PARA VEHICULO TODO TORRENO Maschinenweg PISTE POUR VEHICULE TOUT-TERRAIN A route that has been constructed for the primary purpose of all-wheel drive vehicles
mediterranean climate CLIMA MEDITERRANEO Mediterranes Klima CLIMAT MEDITERRANEEN A type of climate characterized by hot, dry, sunny summers and cool, rainy winters. Basically, this is the opposite of a monsoon climate.
medium expansion foam Mittelschaum Foam with an expansion between 21:1 and 200:1.
medium fuel Brennmaterial mittlerer Größe Fuels too large to be ignited until after the leading edge of the fire front passes, but small enough to be completely consumed (cf. fine fuel, heavy fuel).
medium-range forecast PREDICCION (PRONOSTICO) A MEDIO-PLAZO Wettervorhersage (mittelfristig) PREVISlON A MOYEN TERME A forecast for a period extending from about two days to five days or week in advance; there are no absolute limits to the period embraced by this defintion.
mesoclimate MESOCLlMA Mesoklima MESOCLIMAT The climate of small areas of the earth's surface determined by topography and landscape features, e.g., valleys, forest clearings, etc. The mesoclimate is intermediate in scale between the macroclimate and the microclimate.
message center CENTRO DE COMUNICACIONES Nachrichtenzentrum CENTRE DE COMMUNICATI0N A facility within the communications center for receiving, recording, and routing information about resources reporting to the incident, resource status, and administrative and tactical traffic (ICS).
meteorological factor Meteorologische Faktoren/Parameter Set of meteorological parameters that affect fire danger (precipitation, temperature relative humidity, cloudiness, wind velocity and wind direction).
METEOSAT [Eigenname] METEOrological SATellite. Europe's geostationary weather satellite, launched by the European Space Agency and operated by Eumetsat.
methane Methan Colourless, odourless gas that occurs abundantly in nature as the chief constituent of natural gas, as a product of the anaerobic bacterial decomposition of vegetable matter under, and as combustion product of vegetative matter.
microclimate MICROCLIMA Mikroklima MICROCLIMAT Small-scale climatic structure of the air space which extends from the very surface of the earth to a height where the effects of the immediate character of the underlying surface no longer can be distinguished from the general local climate (mesoclimate or macroclimate). Generally, four times the height of surface growth defines the level at which microclimate overtones disappear.
mid-flame windspeed Windgeschwindigkeit auf mittlerer Flammenhöhe The speed of the wind measured at the midpoint of the flames, considered to be most representative of the speed of the wind that is affecting fire behavior (cf. in-stand wind).
millibar Millibar (Luftdruck) unit of air pressure in the metric system, commonly used in meteorology, equal to 1,000 dynes per square cm, or slightly less than one-thousandth of a standard atmosphere. It is defined as 0.001 bar.
mineral ash CENIZAS MINERALES Mineralasche CENDRES (MINERALES) The residue of mineral matter left after complete combustion of vegetative matter; consists largely of oxides, carbonates, and phosphates of Ca, K and Mg, together with other compounds.
mineral soil SUELO MINERAL Mineralboden SOL MINERAL Soil layers below the predominantly organic horizons; soil with little to none combustible material.
minimum impact suppression techniques (MIST) Feuerbekämpfungstechniken mit dem geringstem Impakt The application of technologies and methods that effectively meet suppression and resource objectives with the least environmental, cultural and social impacts.
minimum-damage fire protection theory [TEORIA DEL DANO MINIMO] Theorie zum Schutz gegen Feuer mit geringstmöglichem Schaden THEORIE DU DOMMAGE MINIMUM D’INCENDIE Concept postulating that the object of fire protection is to minimize fire damage regardless of cost (cf. economic fire protection theory).
miscellaneous (fire) VARIAS Waldbrandursache: Verschiedene FEUX D’ 0RIGINES DIVERSES see: fire cause
mix ratio Mischungsverhältnis The ratio of liquid foam or retardant concentrate to water, usually expressed as a percent.
mixing chamber Mischungskammer A tube, constructed with deflectors or baffles, that mixes foam solution and air to produce tiny, uniform bubbles in a short distance (ca. 0.5 m).
mixing height Measured from the surface upward, the height to which relatively vigorous mixing due to convection occurs. Use of this term normally implies presence of an inversion and the base of the inversion is the top of the mixed layer and defines the mixing height (syn. mixing depth).
mixing layer That portion of the atmosphere from the surface up to the mixing height. This is the layer of air, usually a sub-inversion layer,which is mixed by turbulence and diffusion.
mixmaster MEZCLADOR [Verantwortlicher für die Zumischung brandhemmender Mittel] CHEF DE STATION DE REMPLISSAGE The person in charge of fire retardant mixing operations with responsibility for quantity and quality of the slurry and for the loading of aircraft in land based air tanker operations.
mobile weather unit forecast Wettervorhersage (einer mobilen Einheit) A special fire weather forecast for a specific fire prepared by a meteorologist on site at or near the fire area.
mobilization MOVILlZACION Mobilisierung MOBILISATION The process and procedures used by all organizations, federal, province (or state) and local, for activating, assembling, and transporting all resources that have been requested to respond to or support an incident.
moderate burn QUEMA MODERADA Brand mittlerer Intensität FEU MODERE Degree of burn in which all organic material is burned away from the surface of the soil, which is not discolored by heat; any remaining fuel is deeply charred. Organic matter remains in the soil immediately below the surface.
modified response fire [Feuer, das unter Berücksichtigung bestehender Direktiven teilweise bekämpft wird] A wildfire that is allowed to burn within set policy and management guidelines or may be actioned in a limited manner (limited extinguishment) to bring the wildfire back within those guidelines (cf. modified suppression).
modified suppression Feuerbekämpfung (teilweise, nach Direktive) Fire control that does not seek total extinguishment, that seeks an appropiate response according to burning conditions and pre-approved plans (cf. modified response fire).
Modular Airborne Fire Fighting System (MAFFS) [Eigenname] A manufactured unit consisting of five interconnecting tanks, a control pallet, and a nozzle pallet, with a capacity of 12,000 l designed to be rapidly mounted inside an unmodified C-130 (Hercules) cargo aircraft for use in cascading fire suppressants on wildfires.
moist adiabatic lapse rate GRADIENTE ADIABATICO DEL AIRE HUMEDO Feuchtadiabatisches Temperaturgefälle GRADIENT ADIABATIQUE DE L’AIR HUMIDE The rate of decrease of temperature with height of an air parcel lifted in a saturation-adiabatic process through an atmosphere in hydrostatic equilibrium. This rate varies according to the amount of water vapor in the parcel and is usually between ca. 3 and 9 °C per 1000 meters (syn. saturated adiabatic lapse rate).
moisture of extinction HUMEDAD DE EXTINCION [Feuchtegehalt Brennmaterial, das zum Erlöschen führt] HUMIDITE MINIMALE D’ALLUMAGE That moisture content of a fuel beyond which a fire will not propagate itself and a firebrand will not ignite a spreading fire (syn. extinction moisture content).
monitoring Überwachung The practice of observing, recording, and predicting the fire environment, effects, and behavior of a wildfire or prescribed natural fire.
monsoon climate CLIMA MONZONICO Monsunklima CLIMAT DE MOUSSON (1) Climate characterized by particularly strong seasonal pressure variations over continents. Such seasonal fluctuations, commonly called monsoons, are more pronounced over land surfaces because these surfaces are subject to more significant seasonal temperature variations. Monsoons blow for approximately six months from the northeast and six months from the southwest, principally in southern Asia and parts of Africa. Summer monsoons have a dominant westerly component and a strong tendency to converge, rise, and produce rain. Winter monsoons have a dominant easterly component and a strong tendency to diverge, subside, and cause drought. Both are the result of differences in annual temperature trends over land and sea. (2) Climate characterized by a (a) long winter-spring dry season which includes a "cold season" followed by a short "hot season" immediately preceding the rains, (b) a summer and early autumn rainy season which is usually very wet (but highly variable from year to year) , and (c) a secondary maximum of temperature immediately after the rainy season.
mopup crew RETEN DE CONSUNCION, BRIGADA DE LIQUIDACION Nachlöschmannschaft EQUIPE DE SECURITE APRES INCENDIE A fire crew assigned to mop-up work after the fire or a portion of the fire has been controlled.
mortality Mortalität [Fire Ecology] Number or percentage of plant and animal species killed by fire, insects, disease, climatic factors, or competition from other species or individuals.
move-up REDISTRIBUCION [Zuteilung von restlichen Personal- und Materialressourcen] RELEVE, REDEPLOIMENT, TRANSFERT A system of redistributing the remaining personnel and equipment following a dispatch of other forces among a network of fire stations so as to provide the best possible response within the fire department’s area of direct protection in the event of additional calls for emergency assistance.
moveup method Konstruktion der Bekämpfungslinie durch Aufrücken] Progressive method of fireline construction on a wildfire without changing relative positions in the line. Work is begun with a suitable space between workers; whenever one worker overtakes another, all of those ahead move one space forward and resume work on the uncompleted part of the line. The last worker does not move ahead until work is completed in his/her space. Forward progress of the crew is coordinated by a crew boss (syn. bumpup method, cf. leapfrog method).
mulch see: duff
multijurisdiction incident [Feuerereignis, das unter die Zuständigkeit mehrerer Behördenfällt] An incident requiring action from multiple agencies that have a statutory responsibility for incident mitigation. In ICS these incidents will be managed under unified command.
mutual aid AYUDA MUTUA Amtshilfe, gegenseitige Hilfe AIDE MUTUELLE A system wherein two or more fire departments, by prior agreement, operate essentially as a single agency to respond routinely across jurisdictional boundaries to render mutual assistance in combating fire emergencies.
mutual threat zone ZONA DE PELIGRO COMUN, ZONA DE ACCION MUTUA Gefährdungszone (gemeinsame, den Zuständigkeitsbereich überschreitende) ZONE D’OPERATIONS COORDONNEES (1) Predetermined area, jointly agreed upon and adjacent to either side of the protection boundary where a fire burning on one side of the protection boundary represents a threat to the direct protection area of the agency providing fire protection on the other side. (2) Geographical area between two or more jurisdictions into which those agencies would respond on initial attack (ICS) (syn. mutual response zone).
National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS) INDICE DE PELIGO, SISTEMA NACIONAL, SISTEMA DE EVALUACION DEL GRADO DE PELIGRO Feuergefahrenindex (U.S.A.) SYSTEME NATIONAL D’EVALUATION DE DANGER D’INCENDIES A multiple index scheme designed to provide fire control and land management personnel with a systematic means of assessing various aspects of fire danger on a day-to-day basis (U.S.A.).
National Fuel Appraisal System SISTEMA NACIONAL DE EVALUACION DE COMBUSTIBLES [Eigenname: Taxierungssystem für Brennmaterial (U.S.A.)] SYSTEME NATIONAL D’EVALUATION DES COMBUSTIBLES A procedure for estimating fire hazard in wildland fuels and evaluating fuel treatment effectiveness. The system is supported by a software package that includes four independent computer programs (U.S.A.).
National Interagency Fire Center (NIFC) [Eigenname: Nationales Feuer-Koordinationszentrum (U.S.A.)] A facility located at Boise, Idaho (U.S.A.), jointly operated by several federal agencies, dedicated to coordination, logistical support, and improved weather services in support of fire management operations throughout the United States of America.
national interagency fire qualification system (nifqs) [SISTEMA NACIONAL DE CALIFICACION DEL PERSONAL PARA INCENDIOS] [Eigenname: Nationales System zur Festsetzung von Qualifizierungsstandards (U.S.A.)] SYSTEME NATIONAL INTERSERVICES DE QUALIFICATION POUR LES INCENDIES A fire management qualifications system which describes for a particular large fire organization the acceptable experience, qualification, training, and physical fitness standards required for principal jobs within the system. NIFQS is not a fire management system per se, but when coupled with a large fire organization, provides a complete system for fire management (U.S.A.).
National Interagency Incident Management System (NIIMS) [Eigenname: Nationales System des Katastrophen-Managements (U.S.A.)] An program developed by the U.S. National Wildfire Coordinating Group (NWCG)consisting of five subsystems which collectively provide a total systems approach to all-risk incident management. The subsystems are: The Incident Command System, Training, Qualifications and Certification, Supporting Technologies, and Publications Management (cf. National Wildfire Coordinating Group).
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) [Eigenname: Nationale See- und Atmosphären-Behörde (U.S.A.)] A U.S. agency that ensures the safety of the general public from atmospheric phenomena and to provides the public with an understanding of the Earth's environment and resources. NOAA operates a weather satellite with the Advanced Very High Resolution (AVHRR) instrument which provides active fire detection and burned area discrimination capabilities. The NOAA Operational Significant Event Imagery (OSEI) support team produces daily a set of selected imageries of significant natural and anthropogenic environmental events including wildland fires.
national park PARQUE NACIONAL NATIONALPARK, NATURPARK PARC NATIONAL An area set aside by a national government for the preservation of the natural environment. A national park may be set aside for purposes of public recreation and enjoyment or because of its historical or scientific interest. Most of the landscapes and their accompanying plants and animals in a national park are kept in their natural state. In some countries wildland fires (natural fires, human-caused wildfires, and prescribed burning) are considered an essential part of ecosystem dynamics and park management strategies.
National Wildfire Coordinating Group (NWCG) [COMISION NACIONAL COORDINADORA DE PROTECCION CONTRA INCENDIOS FORESTALES] [Eigenname: Nationale Koordinierungsstelle für Feuer (U.S.A.)] GROUPE NATIONAL DE COORDINATION SUR LES INCENDIES A group formed under the direction of the Secretaries of the Interior and Agriculture to improve the coordination and effectiveness of wildland fire activities and provide a forum to discuss, recommend appropriate action, or resolve issues and problems of substantive nature (cf. National Interagency Incident Management System).
natural barrier BARRERA NATURAL Natürliche Feuerbarriere BARRIERE NATURELLE (POUR LE FEU) Any area where lack of flammable material obstructs the spread of wildfires
natural fire INCENDIO ORIGINADO POR CAUSAS NATURALES Natürlich entstandenes Feuer INCENDIE DE CAUSE NATURELLE Any fire of natural origin (e.g., lightning, spontaneous combustion, volcanic activity).
natural fuel COMBUSTIBLES NATURALES Brennmaterial (natürlich angefallenes) COMBUSTIBLES NATURELS Fuels resulting from natural processes and not directly generated or altered by management practices (cf. activity fuel).
net value change (NVC) VARIACION DEL VALOR NETO Wert- bzw- Wertigkeitsveränderung durch Feuereinwirkung BILAN FINANCIER D’INCENDIE Sum of the changes resulting from increases (benefits) and decreases (damages) in the value of outputs from the land area affected as the consequences of fire.
neutral atmosphere Atmosphärenzustand (neutral) Condition in which temperature decrease with increasing altitude is equal to the dry adiabatic lapse rate (i.e., the atmosphere neither aids nor hinders large-scale vertical motion).
nipple Nippel Fitting used to connect hoses or other fittings having different threads or sizes.
nitrate Nitrat Salt of nitric acid, formed also in combustion plumes.
Nomex [Eigenname: Feuerfestes Gewebe für Schutzkleidung] Trade name for a fire resistant synthetic material (Aramid) used in the manufacturing of flight suits and pants and shirts used by firefighters.
non-commercial forest land MONTE NO PRODUCTOR, TEERENO FORESTAL NO PRODUCTIVO Nichtwirtschaftswald TERRAIN BOISE NON PRODUCTIF Forest land incapable of yielding crops of commercially useful wood because of adverse site conditions, or productive forest land withdrawn from commercial timber use through statute or administrative regulation.
non-convective lift fire phase FASE NO CONVECTIVA [Phase eines Brandes ohne Konvektionsbildung] PHASE DE FEU SANS COLONNE DE CONVECTION Phase of a fire when most emissions are not entrained into a definite convection column.
nozzle aspirated foam system Schaumstrahlrohr A foam generating device that mixes air at atmospheric pressure with foam solution in a nozzle chamber.
nurse tanker CISTERNA NODRIZA, CAMION CISTERNA ABASTECEDOR Wassertender CAMION CITERNE D’APPROVISIONNEMENT Water tank truck used to supply one or more ground tankers stationed at a fire.
occlusion Okklusion The front that is formed when a cold front overtakes a warm front or a stationary front.
oceanic climate see: marine climate
one hour-timelag fuel see: timelag fuel classes
one hour-timelag fuel moisture see: timelag fuel classes
one hundred-hour timelag fuel see: timelag fuel classes
one hundred-hour timelag fuel moisture (100-h tl fm) see: timelag fuel classes
one lick method METODO PROGRESIVO DE CONSTRUCCION DE LINEAS [Eine Methode der progressiven Konstruktion einer Bekämpfungslinie] METHODE PROGRESSIVE D’ETABLISSEMENT DE LIGNE A progressive system of building a fireline on a wildfire without changing relative positions in the line. Each worker does one to several "licks," or strokes, with a given tool and then moves forward a specified distance to make room for the worker behind (cf. progressive method of line construction).
one skid landing APOYO SOBRE UN SKID (ESQUI) Aufsetzen mit einer Kufe VOL STATIONNAIRE UN PATIN AU SOL A semi-landing by a helicopter against a hillside or on rocks whereby only one landing skid is in ground contact and the pilot maintains the helicopter in a level position. Permits loading or unloading of personnel and/or materiel in rugged terrain where no helispot is available.
one thousand-hour timelag fuel see: timelag fuel classes
one thousand-hour timelag fuel moisture (1,000-h tl fm) see: timelag fuel classes
orbit ORBITA Warteschleife (Feuerlöschflugzeug) ORBITE“ D’ATTENTE In aerial fire fighting: Circular holding pattern of an air tanker in the vicinity of a fire, waiting for orders to make a drop.
organic matter Organische Substanz That fraction of the soil that includes plant and animal residues at various stages of decomposition, cells and tissues of soil organisms, and substances synthesized by the soil population.
organic soil Bodenhorizont mit hohem Anteil an organischem Material Any soil or soil horizon containing at least 30% organic matter.
Osborne fire finder [Eigenname: Peilgerät zur Lokalisierung von Feuer] A sighting device used by lookouts to determine the horizontal bearing and sometimes the vertical angle of a fire from a lookout (syn. alidade; cf. fire finder map).
other industry see: fire cause
other land see: forest fire
other wooded land see: forest fire
overwintering fire [FUEGO DE INVIERNO QUE DURA HASTA EL VERANO], FUEGO DE INVIERNO LATENTE] Überwinterndes Feuer (z.B. Moorbrand) FEU HIVERNAL PERSISTANT A fire that persists through the winter months until the beginning of the following fire season (syn. holdover fire).
ozone Ozon A relatively unstable compound of three atoms of oxygen, ozone (O3) constitutes - on the average - less than one part per million (ppm) of the gases in the atmosphere. Tropospheric ozone is a by-product of the photochemical (light-induced) processes associated with vegetation fire products or industrial air pollution (reactions between nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons in the lower atmosphere, cf. Dobson Unit).
pack pump see: backpack pump
packing ratio PROPORCION EN VOLUMEN Kompaktheitsgrad des Brennmaterials AUX DE COMPACITE The fraction of a fuel bed occupied by fuels, or the fuel volume divided by bed volume.
panoramic photograph FOTOGRAFIA PANORAMICA Panoramafoto PHOTOGRAPHIE PANORAMIQUE Photographs from a lookout point, bearing azimuth and vertical angle scales, to assist in locating fires with a firefinder.
panoramic-profile map GRAFICO PANORAMICO Panoramakarte PANORAMA SCHEMATIQUE A panoramic sketch drawn around the circumference of a firefinder map to show the profiles of the topography as it appears from the lookout.
paracargo CARGA LANZADA EN PARACAIDAS Fallschirmlast CHARGE LARGABLE Cargo to be dropped from aircraft by parachute, by other retarding devices, or by free fall, e.g. fire-fighting or food supplies.
parallel attack ATAQUE PARALELO Parallelangriff EXTINCTION PARALLELE, ATTAQUE TANGENTIELLE see: fire suppression (cf. indirect attack)
parallel burning see: strip burning
parallel pumping BOMBEO EN PARALELO Einspeisung durch zwei Pumpen ALIMENTATION EN PARALLELE Procedure by which the flow from two fire pumps is combined into one hose line.
particulate mass concentration CONCENTRACION DE PARTICULAS Partikelkonzentration CONCENTRATION MASSIQUE DES PARTICULES Amount of particulate per unit volume of air, expressed in micrograms per cubic meter.
particulate matter PARTICULAS Aerosol, Partikel PARTICULES EN SUSPENSION Any liquid or solid particles, e.g. in dust, smoke, mist, fumes, or smog, The term total suspended particulates are those particles suspended in or falling through the atmosphere. They generally range in size from 0.1 to 100 mm (microns).
particulates see: particulate matter
parts of a fire PARTES DEL INCENDIO [Teile eines Flächenfeuers] PARTIES D’UN INCENDIE On typical free-burning fires, fire spread is uneven with the main spread moving with the wind or up slope. The most rapidly moving portion is designated the head of a fire, the adjoining portions of the perimeter at right angles to the head are known as flanks, and the slowest moving portion is known as the rear or the base of the fire.
passive crown fire see: intermittent crown fire under forest fire
patch burning QUEMA POR RODALES, QUEMA POR SECTORES Kontrolliertes Brennen auf Kleinflächen (1) BRULAGE PAR PLACETTES, BRULAGE SUR ANDAINS, (2) BRULAGE PAR PLACETTES (PROTECTION) Prescribed burning in patches to prepare sites for group planting or sowing or to form a barrier to subsequent fires.
patrol (2) PATRULLAR, (3) PATRULLA (1-3) Streife gehen, patrouillieren; (2) Streife, Patrouille (1,2) PATROUILLER, (3) PATROUILLEUR (1) Generally, to travel over a specified route to prevent, detect, and suppress fires. (2) More specifically, to go back and forth vigilantly over a length of control line during and/or after construction to prevent breakovers, suppress spot fires, and extinguish overlooked hot spots. (3) Vigilantly checking a fireline following mopup until the fire is extinguished or considered safe from the danger of escape. (4) Person or group of persons who carry out patrol actions.
patrol unit [PATRULLA EQUIPADA] Patrouillen-Einheit PATROUILLE Any light, mobile unit with limited pumping and water capacity (ICS).
pattern see: drop pattern [retardant]
peak fire season EPOCA DE PELIGRO MAXIMO, PERIODO CRITICO DE INCENDIOS Zeitraum höchster Waldbrandgefahr (1) PERIODE CRITIQUE DES INCENDIES , (2) PERIODE ROUGE That period of the fire season during which fires are expected to ignite most readily, to burn with greater than average intensity, and to create damages at an unacceptable level.
peat fire Moorbrand Fire that burns in peat (organic fuel layer consisting of a light, spongy material formed in temperate humid environments by the accumulation and partial decomposition of vegetable remains; cf. ground fire).
people-caused fire see: human-caused fire
perimeter PERIMETRO Aussengrenze der Brandfläche PERIMETRE The exterior boundary of a fire area.
perimeter access Befahrbare Aussengrenze der Brandfläche Fireline suitable for vehicle access.
period of alert Alarmbereitschaft Period of time when suppression crews, equipment, and aircraft are kept ready for deployment on short notice; usually employed when fire danger reaches a predetermined severity index.
permafrost Permafrost Permanently frozen soil which may or may not contain bodies of segregated ice and may reach a thickness of up to 1500 m (N Siberia). The position of the southern boundary of permafrost in the Northern Hemisphere corresponds approximately with the position of the line connecting points whose mean annual temperature is 0°C. Fire disturbance on permafrost sites may result in formation of thermokarst and long-term disappearance of forest cover.
person-caused fire see: human-caused fire
personal protective equipment Sicherheitsausrüstung (für Personenschutz) That equipment and clothing required to mitigate the risk of injury from or exposure to hazardous conditions encountered during the performance of duty. It includes but is not limited to: fire resistant clothing, hard hat, flight helmets, shroud, goggles, gloves, respirators, hearing protection, chainsaw chaps, and shelter.
phase of combustion Verbrennungsphase Term to describe the various forms of wildland combustion, primarily, flaming or glowing.
photochemical process Photochemischer Prozess A process in which through the interaction of the ultraviolet portion of sunlight with combustion products such as nitrogen dioxide and certain hydrocarbons a wide variety of compounds are produced, including ozone.
piling and burning [Aufschichten und Verbrennen] Piling slash resulting from logging and subsequently burning the individual piles (cf. windrow burning)
ping-pong ball system [System zur Entzündung von kontrolliertem Feuer aus der Luft, i.d.R. aus einem Hubschrauber] Mechanized method of dispensing Delayed Aerial Ignition Devices (DAIDs) at a selected rate. The DAIDs are polystyrene balls, 3 cm in diameter, containing potassium permanganate. The balls are fed into a dispenser, generally mounted in a helicopter, where they are injected with a water-glycol solution and then drop through a chute leading out of the helicopter. The chemicals react thermally and ignite in 25-30 seconds. The space between ignition points on the ground is primarily a function of helicopter speed, gear ratio of the dispenser, and the number of chutes used (cf. aerial ignition, delayed aerial ignition device, aerial ignition device, helitorch).
piston pump BOMBA DE PISTONES, BOMBA A PISTON Kolbenpumpe POMPE A PISTON A positive displacement pump using 2, 4, and 6 reciprocating pistons to force water from the pump chamber in conjunction with appropriate action of inlet and discharge valves
pitch up TIRON Hochziehen AUTO CABRAGE Characteristic short rapid climb (pitching up) of an aircraft after release of fire retardant or water.
pixel Pixel, Bildpunkt Smallest part of an electronically-coded image like a computer display, short for picture element.
plan of attack PLAN DE ATAQUE Angriffsplanung PLAN D’ATTAQUE The selected course of action and organization of personnel and equipment in fire suppression, as applied to a particular fire or to all fires of a specific type.
planning section chief [Operationsoffizier im ICS-System] In the ICS: Person responsible to the Incident Commander for collecting, evaluating, disseminating, and using information about the development of the incident and the status of resources, and for supervising all members of the planning section. Also responsible for finalizing the incident action plan.(cf. Incident Command System)
plow line LINEA DE DEFENSA ARADA, LlNEA DE ARADO Pflugstreifen, gepflügter Schutzstreifen LIGNE LABOUREE Fireline constructed by a plow (equipment of a tractor which turns up the soil and reduces the flammable fuel).
plume see: smoke plume
plume-driven fire [von konvektiver Aktivität getriebenes Feuer] A wildland fire whose activity is determined by the convection column.
PM-10 [Partikel der Grösse unter 10 µm] Particulate with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm or less.
pockets of a fire BOLSAS, BOLSONES [von Feuer ausgesparte Flächen] POCHES DE MOINDRE COMBUSTION Unburned indentations in the fire edge formed by fingers or slow burning areas.
point of attack PUNTO DE ATAQUE Angriffspunkt POINT D’ATTAQUE That part of the fire on which work is started when suppression crews arrive.
point of origin see: forest fire
point source ignition technique see: grid ignition technique
poise POISE Poise POISE Unit of fluid viscosity in fire retardant (cf. fire retardant).
Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) [Eigenname: NOAA-Satelliten für Umweltüberwachung in polarem Orbit] Satellites with environmental monitoring functions in polar orbits operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
portable pump BOMBA P0RTATIL, MOTOBOMBA PORTATIL Tragkraftspritze POMPE PORTABLE Small gasoline-driven pump that can be carried to a water source by one or two firefighters or other conveyance over difficult terrain.
positive displacement pump BOMBA VOLUMETRICA Verdrängerpumpe POMPE VOLUMETRIQUE Gear pump or piston pump which moves a specified quantity of water through the pump chamber with each stroke or cycle; capable of pumping air, and therefore is self-priming, but must have pressure relief provisions if plumbing or hoses have shut-off nozzles or valves.
post-fire succession Sukzession nach dem Feuer Vegetation development (regeneration) after fire originating from seedbanks, wind- and animal transported seeds, or resprouting. Different successional stages (seres) are distinguished, e.g. commencing with light-demanding pioneer species, followed by shade tolerant species. The final stage of post-fire succession is called climax (cf. sere, seral).
pre-ignition combustion phase Vorheizphase, Zersetzung durch Hitze Thermal or chemical decomposition of fuel at an elevated temperature. This is the pre-combustion stage of burning during which distillation and pyrolysis predominate. Heat energy is absorbed by the fuel which, in turn, gives off water vapor and flammable tars, pitches, and gases. These ignite when mixed with oxygen to initiate the flaming combustion phase phase (syn. pre-ignition phase, pyrolysis).
pre-suppression planning Planung (Vorbereitung) der Feuerbekämpfung All measures of fire intelligence and preparedness in advance of fire occurrence to ensure effective suppression action. Includes planning the organization, recruiting and training, procuring equipment and supplies, maintaining fire equipment and fire control improvements, and negotiating cooperative and/or mutual aid agreements (cf. fire suppression plan, preattack plan, fire management plan).
preattack see: preattack plan
preattack plan Vorangriffsplan A plan detailing predetermined fire suppression strategy and tactics to be deployed following fire occurrence in a given land management unit. A preattack plan contains data on fuel types and topographic conditions including fuelbreaks, access routes and travel times, water supply sources, lakes suitable for skimmer aircraft, and existing heliports. It also includes information on existing and/or proposed locations for control lines (including the types and number of fire suppression resources that may be required and probable rates of fireguard construction, and possible constraints), base and line camps, helispots, and the priorities for construction and/or improvement of presuppression facilities (syn. preattack planning, preattack, cf. fire management plan, fire suppression plan, pre-suppression planning).
preattack planning see: preattack plan
precipitation PRECIPITACION Niederschlag PRECIPITATION Any or all of the forms of water, whether liquid (i.e., rain or drizzle) or solid (e.g., snow or hail), that fall from the atmosphere and reach the ground.
precipitation gauge PLUVIOMETRO Pluviometer PLUVIOMETRE Device commonly used to collect and measure of any precipitation sufficiently heavy to have fallen to the earth's surface. Both recording and non-recording types are commonly used at fire weather stations (syn. rain gauge).
premarking burn QUEMA ANTES DEL SENALAMIENTO, QUEMA PREVIA AL MARCAJE [Durchbrennen zur Erleichterung des Holzeinschlags] BRULAGE (DE NETTOIEMENT) DU SOUS BOIS Burning of underbrush prior to the sale of forest products to improve the efficiency of timber marking and harvesting (cf. accessibility burn, underburning).
preparedness (1) PLENA FORMA, (2) PREPARACION, ALERTA (1) Einsatzbereitschaft; (2) Bewusstsein (1) RECEPTIVITE, (2) ETAT DE PREPARATION (1) The state of being ready to cope with a potential fire situation (syn. readiness). (2) Mental readiness (awareness) to recognize changes in fire danger and act promptly when action is appropriate (syn. readiness).
preparedness level Bereitschaftsgrad Level of readiness to recognise fire danger and act promptly when action is appropriate.
prescribed burning QUEMA PRESCRITA Kontrolliertes Brennen (1) BRULAGE C0NTROLE , (2) BRULAGE DIRIGE Controlled application of fire to vegetation in either their natural or modified state, under specified environmental conditions which allow the fire to be confined to a predetermined area and at the same time to produce the intensity of heat and rate of spread required to attain planned resource management objectives (cf. prescribed fire). Note: This term has replaced the earlier term "Controlled Burning".
prescribed fire FUEGO (INCENDIO) PRESCRITO Kontrolliertes Feuer (1) FEU PRESCRlT, (2) BRULAGE DIRIGE A management-ignited wildland fire or a wildfire that burns within prescription, i.e. the fire is confined to a predetermined area and produces the fire behavior and fire characteristics required to attain planned fire treatment and/or resource management objectives. The act or procedure of setting a prescribed fire is called prescribed burning (cf. prescribed burning). A wildfire burning within prescription may result from a human-caused fire or a natural fire (cf. prescribed natural fire, Integrated Forest Fire Management, wildfire).
prescribed natural fire [Natürlich entstandenes und unter kontrollierten Bedingungen brennendes Feuer] Naturally ignited fires , such as those started by lightning, which are further used to burn under specific management prescriptions without initial fire suppression and which are managed to achieve resource benefits under close supervision (cf. prescribed fire, wildfire).
prescription PRESCRIPCION Brennvorschrift PRESCRIPTION Written statement defining the objectives to be attained as well as the conditions of temperature, humidity, wind direction and speed, fuel moisture, and soil moisture, under which a fire will be allowed to burn. A prescription is generally expressed as acceptable ranges of the prescription elements, and the limit of the geographic area to be covered.
pressure gradient GRADIENTE DE PRESION Druckgefälle GRADIENT DE PRESSION The difference in atmospheric pressure between two points on a weather map. That is, the magnitude of pressure difference between two points at sea level, or at constant elevation above sea level. Wind speed is directly related to pressure gradient. If distance between constant pressure lines is reduced by one-half, wind speed will be doubled. Conversely, if distance between lines is doubled, wind speed will be reduced by one-half.
pretreat Vorbehandlung The use of water, foam or retardant along a control line in advance of the fire. Often used where ground cover or terrain is considered best for control action.
prevention see: fire prevention
primary lookout PUESTO DE VIGILANCIA PRIMARIO, PUNTO DE OBSERVACION PRIMARIO Feuerwachturm POSTE DE GUET PRINCIPAL A lookout point that must be staffed to meet planned minimum seen area coverage in a given locality. For that reason, continuous service is necessary during the normal fire season and the lookout (person) is not sent to fires.
priming CEBADO Anfüllen per Pumpe AMORCAGE Filling pump with water when pump is taking water not under a pressure head (necessary for centrifugal pumps).
probability of ignition Wahrscheinlichkeit einer Entzündung The chance that a firebrand will cause an ignition when it lands on receptive fuels.
progressive hose lay TENDIDO DE MANGUERA, AMPLIACION PROGRESIVA, TENDIDO PROGRESIVO DE MANGUERAS [Legen einer Schlauchleitung mit Einbau von Verteilern] INTERMEDIAIRE DE POSE DE TUYAUX A hose lay in which double shutoff wye (Y) valves are inserted in the main line at intervals and lateral lines are run from the wyes to the fire edge, thus permitting continuous application of water during extension of the lay.
progressive method of line construction METODO PROGRESIVO DE CONSTRUCCION DE LA LINEA Progressives Anlegen einer Bekämpfungslinie „EXTINCTION PROGRESSIVE“, EXTINCTION PAR PROGRESSION ETAGEE System of organizing workers to build fireline in which they advance without changing relative positions in line. There are two principal methods of applying the system: (1) the Moveup (syn. Stepup and Bumpup) Method, and (2) the One-Lick Method (cf. Fire Crew Work Formation, Line Cutter, Man-Passing-Man).
propagating flaming zone [vorderste Flammzone der Feuerfront] That portion of the fire front that is largely responsible for preheating fuels ahead of the fire.
proportioner Mischer A device that adds a predetermined amount of foam concentrate to water to form foam solution.
protected forest [BOSQUE PROTEGIDO] Geschützter Wald FORET PROTEGEE ? PROTECTION FOREST Forested area set aside by law or any other rule (forest act, forest ordinance) for the purpose of protecting the elements and/or functions of a forest.
protection see: fire protection
protection area Zuständigkeitsbereich (Gebiet) für den Feuerschutz That area for which a particular fire protection organization has the primary responsibility for attacking a wildfire and for directing the suppression action.
protection boundary LIMITE DE PROTECCION Grenze des Zuständigkeitsbereiches LIMITE DE PROTECTION The exterior perimeter of an area within which a specified fire agency has assumed a degree of responsibility for wildland fire protection.
protection forest MONTE PROTECTOR, BOSQUE DE PROTECCION Schutzwald FORET DE PROTECTION An area, wholly or partially covered with forest or woody growth, particularly located on steep or unstable terrain, and managed primarily to regulate stream flow, maintain water quality, minimize erosion, torrents, and avalanches; stabilize drifting sand, or exert any other beneficial forest influences.
protection unit see: protection area
psychrometer Psychrometer The general name for instruments designed to determine the moisture content of air. A psychrometer consists of dry- and wet-bulb thermometers that give the dry- and wet-bulb temperatures, which in turn are used to determine relative humidity and dew point (cf. Hygrometer, Hygrograph, Humidity Sensor, Ventilated Psychrometer; Wet-Bulb Depression, Wet-Bulb Temperature, Wet-Bulb Thermometer).
Pulaski tool HACHA-AZADA, AZAHACHA Pulaski-Hacke OUTIL PULASKI A combination tool widely used in fireline construction (for chopping, trenching, grubbing, digging) which combines a single-bitted axe blade with a narrow adze-like trenching blade fitted to a straight handle.
punk YESCA Zunder BOIS POURRI, BOIS (TRANSFORME/EN) AMADOU Partly decayed material, such as old wood, in which fire can smolder unless it is carefully mopped up and extinguished. A good receptor for firebrands when dry (cf. tinder).
pyrolysis PIROLISIS Pyrolyse PYROLYSE The thermal or chemical decomposition of fuel at an elevated temperature. This is the preignition combustion phase of burning during which heat energy is absorbed by the fuel which, in turn, gives off flammable tars, pitches, and gases.
radiation RADIACION Strahlung (Energie-, Wärmestrahlung) (1) RADIATION (ENERGETIQUE), (2) RADIATION (CALORIFIQUE) see: heat transfer
radiometer Radiometer Instrument that quantitatively measures electromagnetic radiation. Satellite-borne radiometers that depict radiation characteristics from fires (high temperature events), burned vs. non-burned vegetation characteristics, clouds, etc. are used in monitoring and detecting fires and fire effects.
radiosonde Radiosonde A device carried aloft by a balloon equipped with measuring instruments that automatically convert temperature, pressure, and humidity data into electrical impulses and transmit this information to a ground recorder. The measurement proeduce is called sounding (syn. Rawinsonde).
railroads (fire) INCENDIO CAUSADO POR PASO DE FERROCARRIL Feuerursache: Eisenbahn FEU DE CHEMIN DE FER see: fire cause
rain gauge See: precipitation gauge
rake see: fire rake
range fire FUEGO DE PASTOS Weidelandfeuer FEU DE PARCOURS, FEU DE PATURAGE Any wildfire on rangeland.
rapattack Feuerbekämpfung durch Abseilen aus einem Hubschrauber An initial attack of a rappel crew trained to descend from a specially equipped, hovering helicopter on a rope fitted with a mechanical device to control the rate of descent (cf. rappelling).
rappelling DESCENSO CON CUERDA Abseilen (DESCENTE EN) RAPPEL Technique of landing specifically trained and certified firefighters from hovering helicopters; involves sliding down ropes with the aid of friction-producing devices (cf. rapattack).
rate of area growth Vergrösserungsrate der Brandfläche The speed at which a fire increases its size, expressed in terms of area per unit of time (ha/h) (cf. rate of perimeter growth, rate of spread).
rate of perimeter growth Vergrösserungsrate des Feuersaums The speed at which a fire increases its perimeter, expressed in terms of distance per unit of time (m/min or km/h) (syn. rate of perimeter increase; cf. rate of area growth, rate of spread).
rate of perimeter increase see: rate of perimeter growth
rate of spread VELOCIDAD DE PROPAGACION Ausbreitungsgeschwingdigkeit VITESSE DE PROPAGATION The speed at which a fire extends its horizontal dimensions, expressed in terms of distance per unit of time (m/min or km/h) (syn. fire spread, cf. rate of area growth, rate of perimeter growth).
rate of spread factor COEFICIENTE (FACTOR) DE PROPAGACION Faktor der Ausbreitungsgeschwindigkeit FACTEUR DE PROPAGATION A factor usually on a scale of 1 to 100 which represents a relative rate of forward spread for a specific fuel condition and fixed weather conditions (or fuel model). Factors can be used as multipliers, arguments for entering tables, or provide a ratio of values between two fuels.
rate of spread meter MEDIDOR DE VELOCIDAD DE PROPAGACION Kalkulator für Ausbreitungsgeschwindigkeit INDICATEUR DE VITESSE DE PROPAGATION A device that computes the probable rate of spread of a fire for different combinations of fuel moisture content, wind speed, and other selected factors.
rating period PERIODO DE VALIDEZ DEL INDICE Vorhersageperiode für Gefahrenindex PERIODE DE VALIDITE DE L’INDICE The period of time during which a fire danger rating value is considered valid or representative for administrative or other purposes. Normally it is 24 hours extending from midnight to midnight (part of the U.S. National Fire Danger Rating System - NFDRS).
Rawinsonde See: radiosonde
reaction intensity Reaktionsintensität The rate of heat release, per unit area of the flaming fire front, expressed as heat energy/area/time (kilojoule/square meter/minute) (syn. combustion rate).
readiness see: preparedness
real-time Echtzeit Refers to images or data made available for use (inspection, interpretation) simultaneously with their acquisition.
rear (of a fire) Rückwärtige Seite des Feuers That portion of a fire perimeter (1) spreading directly into the wind or down slope, (2) opposite the head, and (3) spreading slowest (syn. heel of a fire).
reburn REQUEMAR Wiederholtes Brennen (1) REBRULAGE, (2) REBRULIS (1) Subsequent burning of an area in which fire has previously burned but has left flammable fuel that ignites when burning conditions are more favorable; (2) An area that has reburned.
reclamation burning Kontrolliertes Brennen zur Wiederherstellung von Ökosystemen Prescribed burning for restoration of ecosystem characteristics and functioning (cf. restoration).
recovery ABSORCION DE HUMEDAD Wiederherstellung (1) der Vegetation nach Feuer; (2) des Feuchtigkeitszustandes REHUMIDIFICATION (1) The process of vegetative re-establishment following a disturbance such as a fire. (2) The increase in fuel moisture as a result of increased relative humidity, usually occurring overnight.
recreation (fire) [INCENDIO] CAUSAS POR RECREACION Waldbrandursache: Freizeitaktivitäten INCENDIE DE PROMENEUR see: fire cause
Red Card [TARJETA DE CALIFICACION] [Eigenname: Qualifizierungszertifikat, U.S.A.] CARTE „ROUGE“ (CARTE DES INCENDIES) A fire qualification card issued persons showing their qualifications to fill given fire suppression positions in a large fire organization and also their training needs (U.S.A.).
red flag warning ALERTA ROJA Hohe Alarmstufe (rot) ALERTE ROUGE Terms used by fire weather forecasters to alert forecast users to special and/or adverse weather conditions that present a high probability of extreme fire behavior. These conditions include significant increases in winds, shifts in wind direction, thunderstorm activity with little or no rain, high temperatures, and significant decreases in humidity.
reel CARRETE Schlauchtrommel DEVIDOIR, TOURET A frame on which hose is wound (chiefly small hose).
rehabilitation RESTAURACION Wiederherstellung, Rehabilitierung REMISE EN ETAT The activities necessary to repair damage or disturbance caused by wildfire or the wildfire suppression activity (cf. restoration).
reinforced attack see: reinforced response
reinforced response Löschangriff mit Verstärkung Fire suppression attack with resources requested in addition to the initial attack resources (syn. reinforced attack, cf. follow-up).
rekindle REPRODUCCION Wiederentzündung „RALLUMAGE“ Reignition due to latent heat, sparks, or embers.
relative humidity HUMEDAD RELATIVA Relative Luftfeuchtigkeit HUMIDITE RELATIVE Ratio of the actual vapour pressure of water in the air to that in air saturated with water vapour, usually expressed in percent.
relay Hintereinander geschalteter Pumpen Use of two or more fire pumps to move water a distance which would require excessive pressures in order to overcome friction loss if only one pump were employed at the source.
relay tank DEPOSITO PLEGABLE, ESTANQUE DE RELEVE Relais-Tank RESERVOIR RELAIS A tank, usually collapsible, used as a reservoir in the relay of water from one fire pump to another.
relief valve VALVULA DE DESCARGA Sicherheitsventil, Stossventil VALVE DE SECURITE A pressure-controlled device which bypasses water at a fire pump to prevent excessive pressures when a nozzle is shut down.
reload base BASE SECUNDARIA, BASE DE RECARGA Abstützpunkt für Feuerlöschflugzeuge BASE SECONDAIRE An airfield where airtankers are reloaded but not permanently stationed.
Remote Automatic Weather Stations (RAWS) Automatische Feuerwetterstation An apparatus that automatically acquires, processes, and stores local weather data for subsequent transmission to the GOES Satellite, from which they are retransmitted to an earth receiving station for use in the National Fire Danger Rating System (U.S.A.).
remote sensing Fernerkundung The technology of acquiring data and information about an object from a distance, e.g. from aircraft or satellite.
repeater Verstärkerstation A radio signal station that automatically relays a radio transmission, sometimes over a different frequency, thereby increasing the range of transmission.
report time TIEMPO DE NOTIFICACION, TIEMPO DE AVISO Verzugszeit zwischen Entdeckung und Alarmierung TEMPS D’ALERTE Elapsed time from fire discovery until the first personnel charged with initiating action for fire suppression are notified of its existence and location.
reportable fire INCENDIO, INCENDIO DECLARADO Meldepflichtiges Feuer INCENDIE CALAMITEUX Any wildfire that requires suppression action to protect natural resources or values associated with natural resources, or is destructive to natural resources.
reserve RESERVA Reserve RESERVE Personnel and material resources not assigned to a specific task, but available for assignment (additional available firefighting resources).
residence time TIEMPO DE RESIDENCIA Verweilzeit (1) TEMPS DE PASSAGE, (2) TEMPS DE CHANGEMENT (1) The time required for the flaming zone of a fire to pass a stationary point. (2) The time an emission component is in the air between emission and removal from the air or change into another chemical configuration.
resident see: fire cause
residential/wildland interface Berührungszone zwischen Siedlungsraum und unbesiedeltem Bereich The transition zone between residential areas and wildlands or vegetated fuels (cf. urban, urban/wildland interface, wildland, wildland fire, rural urban interface).
residual combustion stage FASE DE RESCOLDOS, FASE DE COMBUSTION RESIDUAL Nachglühen STADE D’INCANDESCENCE The smoldering zone behind the zone of an advancing fire front.
residual smoke [Nach Passieren der Feuerfront entstehender Rauch] Smoke produced by smoldering material after the initial fire has passed through the fuel.
residue treatment EL IMINACION DE RESIDUOS, (DESHECHOS) Behandlung forstlicher Abfälle (Schlagabraum) TRAITEMENT DES DECHETS LIGNEUX INDESIRABLES (ET VEGETATION INDESIRABLES DU S0US B0IS) Managing, manipulating, removing, or modifying forest residue. Treatments may involve piling, chipping, crushing, burning, burying, lopping, herbicide spraying of live residues, leaving for natural deterioration, removal, or a combination of these.
resistance to control DIFICULTAD DE EXTINCION, RESISTENCIA AL CONTROL Schwierigkeit der Feuerbekämpfung RESISTANCE DE LA LUTTE The relative difficulty of constructing and holding a control line as affected by resistance to line construction and by fire behavior.
resistance to line construction Schwierigkeit des Aufbaus eines Brandschutzstreifen The relative difficulty of constructing control line as determined by the fuel, topography, and soil.
resource value at-risk see: value at risk
resources MEDIOS, RECURSOS (1) Personelle und technische Ausstattung, (2) natürliche Ressourcen RESSOURCES, MOYENS (1) Personnel, equipment, services and supplies available, or potentially available, for assignment to incidents. Personnel and equipment are described by kind and type, e.g., ground, water, air, etc., and may be used in tactical, support or overhead capacities at an incident. (2) The natural resources of an area, such as timber, grass, watershed values, recreation values, and wildlife habitat (cf. values-at-risk).
respirator MASCARILLA ANTIHUMO Atemschutzmaske FILTRE RESPIRATOIRE A simple filter mask for individual protection against smoke and fumes, recommended for use in fire suppression on wildfires only; not recommended for use on structure fires or fires involving most hazardous materials.
response ACTUACION Reaktiver Einsatz REACTION Movement of an individual firefighting resource from its assigned standby location to another location or to an incident in reaction to dispatch orders or to a reported alarm.
response time see: elapsed time, attack time
responsible fire agency SERVICIO RESP0NSABLE, ORGANISMO RESP0NSABLE DE PROTECCION Zuständige Behörde (Feuerbekämpfung) ORGANISME RESPONSABLE DES INCENDIES Agency with primary responsibility for fire suppression on any particular land area.
resprouter Pflanze mit Ausschlagvermögen nach Feuer Plant that can resprout after fire.
restoration Restaurierung, Wiederherstellung Restoration of biophysical capacity of ecosystems to previous (desired) conditions. Restoration includes rehabilitation measures after fire, or prescribed burning where certain fire effects are desired (cf. rehabilitation, reclamation burning).
restricted area ZONA (AREA) RESTRINGIDA Gebiet mit Flugbeschränkung ZONE REGLEMENTEE [Aviation] Airspace of defined dimensions identified by an area on the surface of the earth within the flight of an aircraft, which is subject to restrictions (but not wholly prohibited).
retardant see: fire retardant
retardant base ESTACION DE MEZCLA Y CARGA DE RETARDANTES, BASE DE RETARDANTES Versorgungsstützpunkt für brandhemmende Mittel STATION DE RETARDANTS OU PELICANDROME Ground facilities for mixing, storing, and loading fire retardant into air tankers (cf. airtanker base).
retardant coverage NIVEL DE COBERTURA RETARDANTE, LANZAMIENTO DE RETARDANTE Benetzungsgrad (nach Abwurf brandhemmender Mittel) COUVERTURE DE RETARDANT Area of fuel covered and degree of coverage on the fuel by a fire retardant, usually expressed in terms of liters per square meter
retardant drop RETARDANTE], DESCARGA Abwurf brandhemmender Mittel LARGAGE DE RETARDANT Fire retardant cascaded from an air tanker or helitanker.
return period see: fire interval
rheologic properties Fliesseigenschaften (flüssige Retardants) Flow characteristics of liquid fire retardants, especially their cohesiveness or ability to hold together while falling through the air.
rich tool see: council tool
ridge (1) First, Bergrücken, (2) Hochdruckkeil (1) [Geography] A long, narrow elevation of land or a similar range of hills or maountains. (2) [Meteorology] An elongated area of relatively high atmospheric pressure extending from the center of a high-pressure region.
ring fire Ringfeuer A fire started by igniting the full perimeter of the intended burn area so that the ensuing fire fronts converge toward the center of the burn.
risk RIESGO DE INCENDIO Feuerrisiko RISQUE D’ECLOSION, CAUSE D’INCENDIE (1) The probability of fire initiation due to the presence and activity of a causative agent. (2) A causative agent. (3) A number related to the potential of firebrands to which a given area will be exposed during the rating day element of the U.S. NFDRS) (syn. fire risk).
risk index Risiko-Index A number related to the probability of a firebrand igniting a fire (cf. human-caused risk).
risk source ORIGEN DE RIESGO, FUENTE DE RIESGO Gefahrenquelle ORIGINE (SOURCE) DE DANGER Identifiable human activity that historically has been a major cause of wildfires on a protection unit.
rough MALEZA, CUBIERTA DEL PISO UNTERWUCHS COUVERTURE (MORTE ET VIVANTE) DU SOL The accumulation of living and dead ground and understory vegetation, especially grasses, forest litter, and draped dead needles, sometimes with addition of underbrush (common term in the Southeast of the U.S.A.) (cf. rough reduction).
rough reduction ELIMINACION DE LA MALEZA ENTFERNUNG DES UNTERWCHSES ELIMINAT ION (REDUCTION) DE LA COUVERTURE VEGETALE Reduction of the rough hazard, usually by prescribed burning (cf. rough).
roundwood MADERA EN ROLLO, ROLLIZO Rundholz BOIS ROND(S) That portion of dead fuels which are roughly cylindrical in shape (boles, stems, or limbs of woody material).
route card TARJETA DE INSTRUCCIONES], TARJETA DE RUTA Karte mit Informationen über Infrastrukturen CARTE EQUIPEE POUR LES INCENDIES Index card used by a dispatcher and frequently carried on rural fire apparatus which lists specific directions for responding to individual rural properties and frequently includes a description of the property, water sources available, and any special information pertinent to fire suppression and rescue operations (syn. running card).
run (of a fire) REAVIVAR, CORRIDA DE FUEGO [Kurzfristige Beschleunigung der Feuerausbreitung] COURSE DU FEU Rapid advance of the head of a fire, characterized by a marked transition in fireline intensity and rate of spread with respect to that noted before and after the advance (cf. blow-up, flare-up).
running (fire) FUEGO QUE AVANZA RAPIDAMENTE, INCENDIO DE AVANCE RAPIDO Schnell laufendes Bodenfeuer RAPlDE, (FEU COURANT) see: fire behaviour
running card see: route card
running crown fire see: independant crown fire under forest fire
rural RURAL ländlich, abgelegen RURAL Any area wherein the residences and other developments are scattered and intermingled with forest, range, or farm land and native vegetation or cultivated crops.
rural fire protection PROTECCION CONTRA INCENDIOS EN ZONA RURAL Brandschutz in abgelegenen Gebieten PROTECTION RURALE CONTRE LES INCENDIES Fire protection and firefighting problems that are outside of areas under municipal fire prevention and building regulations and that are usually remote from public water supplies.
rural urban interface Berührungszone Land-Stadt Transition zone between rural and urban space (cf. residential/wildland, urban/wildland interface).
saddle Gebirgssattel Depression or pass in a ridgeline (cf. ridge).
safety circle CIRCULO DE SEGURIDAD Sicherheitszone um Hubschrauberlandeplatz CERCLE DE SECURITE An obstruction-free circle around the (helicopter) landing pad.
safety island see: safety zone
safety officer [JEFE DE SEGURIDAD PERSONAL], ASSISTENTE DE Sicherheitsbeauftragter, Sicherheitsoffizier OFFICIER DE SECURITE A member of the command staff responsible to the incident commander for monitoring and assessing hazardous and unsafe situations, and developing measures for assessing personnel safety.
safety zone ZONA DE SEGURIDAD Sicherheitszone (Fluchtraum) ZONE DE SECURITE An area (usually a recently burned or cleared area) used for escape in the event the line is outflanked or in case a spot fire causes fuels outside the control line to render the line unsafe. In firing operations, crews progress so as to maintain a safety zone (safety island) close at hand allowing the fuels inside the control line to be consumed before going ahead. Safety zones (safety islands) may also be constructed as integral parts of fuelbreaks; they are greatly enlarged areas which can be used with relative safety by firefighters and their equipment in the event of blowup in the vicinity.
salvo DESCARGA EN SALVA Salvenabwurf LARGAGE EN UNE FOIS (EN SALVE) Dropping by an air tanker of its entire load of fire retardant at one time (cf. incremental drop).
scar see: fire scar
scooper Schöpfflugzeug (Feuerlöschflugzeug) Fixed-wing airplane with scooping devices that allow them to fill their interior tanks with water from lakes of other water bodies while in flight.
scorch Versengung Browned foliage (killed but not consumed by fire) or blackened bole (cf. scorch height).
scorch height Versengungshöhe Height to which tree foliage has been browned (killed but not consumed), or to which the bole has been blackened by fire.
scorch line see: scorch height
scout VIGIA Beauftragter für Erkundung, Aufklärung ECLAIREUR GUIDE Staff worker in a fire suppression organization assigned duties of gathering and reporting timely information such as fire location and fire behaviour, progress in control, and the physical conditions that affect the planning and execution of fire suppression.
scratch line LINEA SOMERA DE DEFENSA, LINEA DE PRELIMINAR Provisorische Bekämpfungslinie LIGNE SOMMAIRE DE DEFENSE An unfinished preliminary control line hastily established or constructed as an emergency measure to check the spread of fire (cf. control line).
scrub see: brush
sea breeze Seewind A daytime breeze in which cooler, higher pressure air from over coastal waters moves on shore to replace heated air rising off the warmer land mass.
sea-level pressure PRESION AL NIVEL DEL MAR Luftdruck in Normal Null (NN) PRESSION AU NIVEAU DE LA MER (PRESSION NORMALE) Pressure value obtained by the theoretical reduction or increase of station pressure to sea level
season of fire (fire season) see: fire season
seasonal forest Wald in wechselfeuchtem (saisonalen) Klima A closed deciduous forest, or an open forest with continuous grass cover, distinguished from other tropical forests by distinct seasonality and low rainfall. Includes closed forests made up of deciduous hardwoods which shed their leaves during the dry season and woody/tree savannas.
seasonal monthly average MEDIA MENSUAL DE INCENDIOS EN EPOCA DE PELIGRO, OCURRENCIA MEDIA MENSUAL [Durschnittliches monatliches Auftreten von Feuer während der Feuersaison] MOYENNE MENSUELLE SAISONNIERE Historically, the average number of human-caused fires occurring on a protection unit per month during the established fire season.
seasonal risk class CLASES DE RIESGO EN EPOCA DE PELIGRO, CLASE DE RIESGO ESTACIONAL Gefahrenklasse (räumlich und saisonal) CLASSE DE RISQUE SAISONNIER Objective ranking of protection units within an administrative group based on the number of human-caused fires for at least the past five years.
second order station see: secondary weather station
secondary line LINEA SECUNDARIA Zusätzliche Bekämpfungslinie LIGNE SECONDAIRE Any fireline constructed at a distance from the fire perimeter concurrently with or after a line already constructed on or near to the perimeter of the fire. Generally constructed as an insurance measure in case the fire escapes control by the primary line (cf. control line).
secondary lookout PUESTO DE VIGILANCIA COMPLEMENTARIO, (2) VIGILANTE COMPLEMENTARIO (1) Zusätzlicher Beobachtungsposten (2) Zusatzbeobachter (1) POSTE DE SURVEILLANCE (GUET) SECONDAIRE, (2) GUETTEUR DE STATION SECONDAIRE (1) Lookout point intermittently used to supplement seen area coverage of the primary lookout system when required by fire danger, restricted visibility, or other factors. (2) Person who occupies such a station.
secondary weather station ESTACION METEOROLOGICA COMPLEMENTARIA Wetterstation 2. Ordnung STATION METEOROLOGIQUE COMPLEMENTAIRE Station at which minimum weather measurements are taken to compute ratings of burning conditions; provides supplementary information on weather experience
security weather watch Sicherheits-Wetterbeobachter Observers are posted at one or more strategic locations in the proximity of a fire to detect and warn fire personnel of pending critical weather changes that might significantly affect the fire.
seen area AREA DE VISIBILIDAD, AREA VISIBLE Einsehbares Gebiet ZONE VISIBLE The ground, or vegetation growing thereon, that is directly visible under specified atmospheric conditions from an established or proposed lookout point or aerial detection flight route (syn. visible area; cf. seen area map).
seen area map Karte der einsehbaren Gebiete A map showing the different classes of seen area covered by a lookout or lookouts. It may differentiate visible, screened, and blind areas; or only two classes, visible and blind, may be recognized.
seral Zu einer Sukzessionsstufe gehörend Of or pertaining to a sere (cf. sere, post-fire succession).
sere Gesamtheit aller Sukzessionsstufen The complete series of stages occurring in succession in communities of plants and animals until the climax is reached (cf. seral, post-fire succession).
serotinous seed container SERONDO, COMO SEROTINO Serotiner Samenbehälter CONE SEROTINEUX A seed container that remains closed on the tree or shrub for several years and requires heat from a fire to open the scales and release the seed.
serotiny Serotinität Storage of seeds in closed see containers in the canopy of shrubs and tree. For instance, serotinous cones of lodgepole pine do not open until subjected to temperatures of 45 to 50°C, causing the melting of the resin bond that seals the cone scales.
severe burn CALCINADO, QUEMADO SEVERAMENTE Brand mit intensiver Einwirkung auf den Boden BRULURE INTENSE Degree of burn in which all organic material is removed from the soil surface, and soil surface is discolored by heat; organic material below the surface is consumed or charred (cf. fire severity, light burn, moderate burn).
severity see: fire severity
severity index Index der Feuergefährdung A number that indicates the relative net effects of daily fire danger on the fire load for an area during a specified period, such as a fire season.
shaded fuelbreak CORTAFUEGOS ARBOLADO (SOMBREADO) Feuerbarriere (bestockt, überschattet) COUPURE DE COMBUSTIBLE ARBOREE (= S.E. France PARE FEU ARBORE) Fuelbreaks built in forest areas where the trees on the break are thinned and pruned to reduce the fire potential yet retain enough crown canopy to make it possible to control surface fires more easily.
short-range spotting Überspringen von Feuer im unmittelbaren Bereich des Hauptfeuers Firebrands, flaming sparks, or embers are carried by surface winds, starting new fires beyond the zone of direct ignition by the main fire (usually less than 500m).
short-term fire danger PELIGRO DIARIO DE INCENDIOS Kurzfristige Feuergefahr RISQUE D’INCENDIE A COURT TERME Assessment of current records and conditions to determine day-to-day fire danger. Factors considered are fuel condition, weather measurements and forecasts, fire risk, fuel types and resulting fire hazards, accessibility, values at risk, and topography; information is used in day-to-day fire prevention, fire presuppression, and fire suppression planning.
short-term fire retardant Kurzfristig wirksames brandhemmendes Mittel Fire retardant that inhibits combustion primarily by the cooling and smothering action of water. Chemicals may be added to the water to alter its viscosity or retard its evaporation, thereby increasing its effectiveness (cf. long-term retardant, wetting agent).
shrub Busch A woody perennial plant differing from a perennial herb by its persistant and woody stem; and from a tree by its low stature and habit of branching from the base.
shut-off nozzle LANZA CON VALVULA, PITON CON LLAVE Strahlrohr (absperrbar) FERMETURE DE LANCE Common type of fire hose nozzle permitting stream flow to be controlled by the firefighter at the nozzle rather than only at the source of supply.
siamese BIFURCACION, GEMELO, SIAMES Sammelstück RACCORD EN Y Hose fitting (preferably gated) for combining flow from two or more lines of hose into a single stream; one male coupling to two female couplings.
silvopastoral systems see: agrosilvopastoral system
simple hose lay see: single hose lay
simultaneous ignition see: area iIgnition
single door drop Abwurf aus einer Löschmittelkammer Technique whereby fire suppressant is released from only one compartment of an air tanker.
single hose lay TENDIDO DE MANGUERA SENCILLO, TENDIDO SIMPLE Schlauchleitung (einfach) legen ETABLISSEEENT SIMPLE DE TUYAUX A hoselay consisting of consecutively coupled lengths of hose without laterals. The lay is extended by inserting additional lengths of hose in the line between pumps and nozzle. Also called single hose lay.
single strip backfire see: backfire ignition under ignition pattern
single strip flank fire see: flank fire ignition under ignition pattern
single strip head fire see: head fire ignition under ignition pattern
site preparation burning Brennen zur Vorbereitung eines Standorts für Pflanzung oder Naturverjüngung A fire set to expose mineral soil and control competing vegetation until seedings of the desired species become established.
situation analysis ANALISIS DE LA SITUACION Lagebeurteilung ANALYSE DE LA SITUATION Analysis of factors which influence suppression of an escaped fire from which a plan of attack will be developed; includes development of alternative strategies of fire suppression and net effect of each.
situation report (sitrep) Situationsbericht, Lagebericht An itemized list and/or written account, usually issued on a daily basis, detailing the status of various fire-related activities. A situation report generally contains information on fire occurrence and area burned to date, fire suppression resources committed to going fires and resources on standby, number of fires in the various stages of control, fire danger class, fire weather forecast, and forest closures.
size class Klassifizierung der Feuergrösse Classification of wildfire size defined by the area burned (a large variety of different national fire class sizes is in place).
skid trail LANZADERO DE TRONCOS, SENDERO DE MADERO Rückegasse, Maschinenweg VOIE DE RONDINS Any road or trail prepared for or formed by the process of skidding logs from stump to landing.
skidder unit EQUIPO DE INCENDIOS PARA TRACTOR, EQUIPO DE EXTINCION PARA TRACTOR ARTICULADO Feuerlöschrüstsatz für Forsttraktoren (1) EQUIPE D’INTERVENTION SUR VEHICULE FORESTIER TOUT-TERRAIN EQUIPE INCENDIE, (2) CAISSE D’OUTILS ANTI INCENDIES POUR TRACTEUR FORESTIER A self-contained unit consisting of a water tank, fire pump, and hose specially designed to be carried on a logging skidder for use in forest fire suppression.
skimmer see: scooper
sky cover NUBOSIDAD, COBERTURA DEL CIELO Himmelsbedeckung DEGRE DE NEBULOSITE Amount of clouds and/or other obscuring phenomena that are detectable from the point of observation.
slash RESTOS DE ARBOLADO, DESECHOS Brennmaterial aus extremen Naturereignissen oder forstwirtschaftlichem Eingriff (Schlagabraum) REMANENTS DIVERS Debris (fuels) resulting from natural events (wind/ fire) or human (logging).
slash and burn Brandfeldbau, Brandwirtschaft, Schwendwirtschaft Method of clearing and burning forest or secondary vegetation for preparing agricultural and pastoral lands. Term is usually applied in the context of shifting cultivation.
slash burning Brennen von Schlagabraum Slash disposal by prescribed burning (cf. slash disposal).
slash disposal ELIMINACION DE LOS RESTOS DE ARBOLADO, ELIMINACION DE DESECHOS Beseitigung von Schlagabraum und anderem Brennmaterial TRAITEMENT ELIMINATION DES REMANENTS Treatment of slash to reduce fire hazard or for other purposes (cf. fuel management).
sleeper fire see: holdover fire
sling ESLINGA, RED DE CARGA Schlinge ELINGUE A net attached by a lanyard to a helicopter cargo hook and used to haul supplies.
sling load CARGA CON ESLINGA, CARGA CON RED Schlingenlast PALANQUEE, ELINGUEE Any cargo carried beneath a helicopter and attached by a lead line and swivel.
sling psychrometer PSICROMETRO HONDA, PSICROMETRO GIRATORIO Schleuderpsychrometer PSYCHROMETRE A FRONDE A portable, hand-operated psychrometer. The dry- and wet-bulb thermometers are mounted on a frame connected to a handle at one end by means of a bearing or length of chain. Thus, it can be whirled by hand to provide the necessary ventilation.
slip-on tanker EQUIPO CONTRA INCENDIOS DESMONTABLE, EQUIPO DE EXTINCION DESMONTABLE Feuerlöschrüstsatz für Kraftfahrzeug CITERNE AMOVIBLE A tank, a live hose reel or tray, an auxiliary pump, and an engine combined into a single one-piece assembly which can be slipped onto a truck bed or trailer.
slope effect Hangeffekt Variation on the fire behaviour induced by topographic slope, relative to horizontal terrain.
slope orientation see: aspect
slope winds Hangwinde, Gefällewinde Small scale convective winds that occur due to local heating and cooling of a natural incline of the ground.
slopover Überspringen der Feuerfront A fire edge that crosses a control line or natural barrier intended to confine the fire (syn. breakover).
slurry MEZCLA RETARDANTE [Suspension unlöslicher Zusatzmittel für Löschwasser] IGNIFUGE, BOUE, BOUILLIE IGNIFUGE A suspension of insoluble matter in water. In fire suppression, it is a general term applied to any long-term or short-term retardant after the mixing process has been completed.
smog Smog Generally considered only photochemical air pollution. Originally meant a combination of smoke and fog (cf. photochemical process).
smoke HUMO Rauch FUMEE Suspension in the atmosphere of small particles (solid, liquid) produced by combustion, thermal decomposition or thermal evaporation.
smoke column COLUMNA DE HUMO Rauchsäule COLONNE DE FUMEE Smoke that is definable in vertical form.
smoke concentration Rauchkonzentration The weight of combustion products (micrograms per cubic meter) found in a given volume of air.
smoke episode HUMO ESPESO Rauchepisode PERIODE ENFUMEE Period when smoke is dense enough to be an unmistakable visual nuisance or hazard to public health and traffic safety.
smoke haze BRUMA CON HUMO Dunst (durch Rauch erzeugt) BRUME SECHE DE FUMEE An aggregation (suspension) in the atmosphere of very fine, widely dispersed, solid or liquid particles generated by vegetation fires giving the air an opalescent appearance.
smoke intrusion Eindringen von Rauch Smoke from prescribed fire entering a designated area at unacceptable levels.
smoke management CONTROL DE HUMOS, MANEJO DEL HUMO Rauch-Management REGULATION DES EMISSIONS DE FUMEE (DES FEUX PROVOQUES) The application of knowledge of fire behavior and meteorological processes to minimize air quality degradation during prescribed fires.
smoke pall HUMO, NUBE HORIZONTAL, CAPA DE HUMO Rauchwolke VOILE DE FUMEE An extensive, thick blanket of smoke spreading more or less horizontally from a fire.
smoke plume Rauchfahne The gases, smoke, and debris that rise slowly from a fire while being carried along the ground because the buoyant forces are exceeded by those of the ambient surface wind (syn. plume).
smoke target see: smoke-sensitive area
smoke vent height [Höhe, in der vertikal aufsteigender Rauch von Höhenwind horizontal transportiert wird] Level, in the vicinity of the fire, at which the smoke ceases to rise and moves horizontally with the wind at that level.
smoke-sensitive area ZONA DE PERTURBACION Rauchempfindliche Region ZONE SENSIBLE AUX FUMEES An area that may be adversely affected by smoke from a prescribed burn, e.g. for reasons such as population density, existing technogenic air pollution, or intensive recreation use (syn. smoke-sensitive target).
smokechaser Feuerspezialist zum Aufspüren entfernt liegender Feuer] Individual firefighter deployed in large back-countries to identify and extinguish small fires such as individual burning trees.
smokejumper PARACAIDISTA, COMBATIENTE PARACAIDISTA Feuerspringer (Fallschirmspringer) POMPIER PARACHUTISTE Fire fighter trained and equipped to parachute from aircraft to fires (usually in remote areas) for initial attack. Parachutes are designed for mountainous terrain and are capable of maneuvering in the winds accompanying wildfire conditions. A typical initial attack load of jumpers consists of eight jumpers and of handtools, saws, food and drinking water.
Smokey Bear OSO SMOKEY [Eigenname: Smokey Bär] OURS „SMOKEY“ The mascot in appearence of a bear of the Cooperative Forest Fire Prevention Program of the U.S.A. since 1945. The program was originated by the U.S. Forest Service, in cooperation with the National Association of State Foresters and the Advertising Council to fight against the waste of natural resources resulting from forest fires.
smouldering (fire) see: fire behaviour
smouldering combustion COMBUSTION SIN LLAMA Schwelen COMBUSTION INCANDESCENTE Combustion of a solid fuel, generally with incandescence and smoke but without flame. Combustion associated with residual burning of forest fuels behind the fire front. Emissions are at least twice that of the Fire Front, and consist mainly of tars (syn. glowing combustion).
smudge FOCO NO EXTINGUIDO, FOCO DE HUMO Rauchnest FEU FUMIGENE Spot in a fire or along a fire edge which has not yet been extinguished, and which is producing smoke; term is commonly used during the mopup stage of a fire.
snag ARBOL SECO Dürrständer CHICOT A standing dead tree or part of a dead tree from which at least the leaves and smaller branches have fallen. Unstable snags can pose serious safety hazards.
snorkel tank Tank mit Saugrüssel (Löschhubschrauber) A fixed tank attached to the belly of the helicopter that has a pump-driven snorkel attached. The helicopter hovers over the water source with the end of the snorkel immersed, the pump then fills the tank.
soot Russ A black carbonaceous substance produced by incomplete combustion of coal, wood, oil, etc., rising in fine particles.
sortie SALIDA Einzeleinsatz SORTIE Single round trip made by an air tanker from an air attack base to a fire and return.
sound warbler SIRENA Warnsirene (am Feuerlöschflugzeug) SIRENE DE SECURITE (AVION) A signalling device mounted on retardant aircraft which generates a tremulous siren sound to warn firefighters on the ground that a plane is approaching to drop retardant.
sounding see: radiosonde
spark Funke An ignited particle such as is thrown off by burning wood or bark, or from chimneys, exhaust pipes, or train brakes (cf. spark arrester).
spark arrester Funkenfänger A device installed in a chimney, flue, or exhaust pipe to stop the emission of sparks and burning fragments (cf. spark).
species composition Artenzusammensetzung A term relating the relative abundance of one plant species to another using a common measurement; the proportion (percentage) of various species in relation to the total on a given area.
speed of attack VELOCIDAD DE ATAQUE Vorbrennzeit bis Eintreffen des ersten Abmarsches RAPIDITE DE L’ATTAQUE The elapsed time from origin of fire to arrival of the first-suppression force.
spike camp see: line camp
split drop DESCARGA DE UN DEPOSITO; LANZAMIENTO PARCIAL Teilabwurf (Feuerlöschflugzeug) LARGAGE FRACTIONNE Suppressant drop (water, retardant, foam) made from one compartment at a time from an air tanker with a multi-compartment tank which allows load to be splitted into several drops.
spot Commonly used acronym for "Système Pour l'Observation de la Terre" - a French polar-orbiting Earth observation satellite family with high resolution optical image system (ground resolution: 10 meters).
spot burning QUEMA POR PUNTOS Punktbrennen (Schlagabraum) BRULAGE PAR POINTS A modified form of broadcast slash burning in which the greater accumulations of slash are fired and the fire is confined to these spots.
spot fire [S] FOCO SECUNDARIO [L] FUEGO SATELITE Flugfeuer (überspringendes Feuer) SAUTE DE FEU (1) Fire ignited outside the perimeter of the main fire by a firebrand (by flying sparks or embers transported by air currents, gravity, or fire whirls). (2) A very small fire which jumped over the fireline, that requires little time and resources to extinguish by air currents, gravity, and/or fire whirls (cf. long-range spotting).
spot fire technique FOCO SECUNDARIO Punktfeuertechnik TECHNIQUE DU FEU PAR POINTS A method of lighting prescribed fires where ignition points are set individually as the day progresses and continuous lines of fire become too intense. When properly executed, a grid of spot ignitions will produce a fire with an intensity much greater than that of a line-backing fire but somewhat less than that of a line-heading fire. Timing and spacing of the individual ignition spots are the keys to the successful application of this method.
spot ignition see: area grid ignition under ignition pattern
spot weather forecast PREDICCION (PRONOSTICO) METEOROLOGICA LOCAL Wettervorhersage (lokal begrenzt) PREVISION METEOROLOGIQUE LOCALE A special forecast issued to fit the time, topography, and weather of each specific fire (area). These forecasts are issued upon request of the user agency and are more detailed, timely, and specific than zone forecasts.
spotter [COORDINADOR DE PARACAIDISTAS] Lufteinweiser RESPONSABLE DES LARGAGES In smokejumping, rappelling, and paracargo operations, the individual responsible for selecting drop target and supervising all aspects of dropping smokejumpers, rappellers, or cargo.
spotting (fire) PRODUCCION DE FOCOS SECUNDARIOS Überspringen des Feuers durch Flugfeuer ESSAIMAGE see: fire behaviour (cf. spot fire, long-range spotting)
spray Sprühen Water applied through an orifice in finely divided particles to absorb heat and smother fire, to protect exposures from radiated heat, and to carry water toward otherwise inaccessible fire.
spread index Index für Feuerausbreitung A number used to indicate relative (not actual) rate of spread.
spread index meter Kalkulator für die Ausbreitungsrate von Feuer Device for combining measured ratings of various fire danger factors into numerical classes or rates of spread.
squad boss CAPATAZ, JEFE DE CUADRILLA Truppführer CHEF DE GROUP Working leader under the immediate supervision of a Crew Boss who supervises fireline work of 3 to 8 firefighters.
squall TURBONADA, RAFAGA COUP DE VENT RAFALE Sudden increase in wind speed to at least 15 knots that is sustained for at least 1 minute but not more than 5 minutes.
squall line Gewitterfront A narrow, organized band of active thunderstorms, often proceeding a cold front. It is of importance to fire behavior due to accompanying strong gusty winds and the possibility of such a line passing between regular weather observation stations without being reported (syn. line squall).
stable atmosphere Stabile Atmosphäre Condition of the atmosphere in which the temperature decrease with increasing altitude is less than the dry adiabatic lapse rate. In this condition, the atmosphere tends to suppress large-scale vertical motion (syn. atable air).
staging area BASE CENTRAL, CENTRO DE ABASTECIMIENTO Warte- und Vorbereitungsgebiet ("Aufmarschgebiet") (1) AIRE DE CHARGEMENT, (2) AIRE DE CONCENTRATION (RASSEMBLEMENT) (1) An area within a fire camp where personnel and equipment are assembled for transportation to the line. (2) A temporary on-incident location where incident personnel and equipment are assigned on a three-minute available basis (ICS).
stand replacement fire INCENDIO SEGUIDO DE REGENERACION [Feuer, das die Bestandesentwicklung auf den Neuanfang zurücksetzt] FEU DE REGENERATION (FORESTIERE) Fire which kills all or most living overstory trees in a forest and initiates secondary succession or regrowth.
stand-by crew CUADRILLA-RETEN Einheit in Sofortbereitschaft EQUIPE D’URGENCE, EQUIPE D’INTERVENTION RAPIDE A group of trained firefighters stationed at a dispatch point for quick, rapid deployment.
standing fuel Stehendes Brennmaterial Part of vegetation (living or dead) that is supported on its stem; as opposed to litter or ground fuels.
state forest MONTE PUBLICO, BOSQUE ESTATAL Staatswald FORET DOMANIALE Forests owned and administered by a state or provincial forest service, in some countries by the national (or federal) forest service.
state of weather ESTADO DEL TIEMPO Wetterlage CONDITIONS ATMOSPHERIQUES A code which expresses the amount of cloud cover, kind of precipitation, and/or restrictions to visibility being observed at the fire danger station at basic observation time.
state park PARQUE NATURAL, PARQUE ESTATAL Naturpark (staatlich) PARC NATUREL An area established by the government of a state primarily for public recreation or for the preservation of unique natural or historic resources, administrative details varying widely from country to country.
static pressure PRESION ESTATICA Statischer Druck PRESSION STATIQUE Water pressure head available at a specific location when no water is being used so that no friction loss is being encountered. Static pressure is that pressure observed on the engine inlet gage before any water is taken from the hydrant.
static water supply PUNTO DE AGUA, FUENTE DE AGUA ESTATICA UNABHAENGIGE LOESCHWASSERVERSORGUNG APPROVISIONNEMENT D’EAU PAR GRAVITE Supply of water at rest which does not provide a pressure head for fire suppression but which may be employed as a suction source for fire pumps (e.g., water in a reservoir, pond, or cistern).
statistical fire INCENDIO REGISTRADO Statistisch erfasstes Feuer INCENDIE REPERTORIE In general, an actionable fire, on which any fire agency reports and maintains specified information (e.g., cause, date and point of origin, size, fire damage).
step-up method see: moveup method
straight stream CHORRO Vollstrahl JET DROIT, JET-DIRECT Water or retardant projected directly from the nozzle as contrasted with a fog or spray cone. A straight stream may be provided by a solid stream orifice or by adjusting a fog jet into a straight stream pattern.
straight stream nozzle LANZA DE CHORRO LLENO, PITON DE CHORRO COMPACTO Vollstrahlrohr LANCE POUR JET DROIT A hose tip spout designed to provide the maximum reach of water without feathering.
strainer ALCACHOFA, ALCACHOFA FILTRO Schmutzfänger FILTRE A wire or metal guard used to keep debris from clogging pipe or other openings made for removing water; used in pumps and on suction hose to keep foreign material from clogging or damaging pumps.
strategy ESTRATEGIA Strategie Strategie Overall plan of attack for fighting a fire which gives regard to the most cost-efficient use of personnel and equipment in consideration of values threatened, fire behaviour, legal constraints, and objectives established for management of natural resources; leaves decisions on tactical use of personnel and equipment to line commanders in the suppression function (cf. tactics).
stratosphere Stratosphäre the region in the atmosphere outside the troposphere but within the ionosphere, characterized by relatively uniform temperature over considerable differences in altitude or by a marked different lapse rate from that of the troposphere below (cf troposhpere).
strength of attack INTENSIDAD DEL ATAQUE, FUERZA DE ATAQUE Angriffsstärke FORCE D’ATTAQUE Number of resources used to attack a fire.
strike team EQUIPO DE EXTINCION Y SALVAMENTO Einsatzgruppe FORCE DE FRAPPE Specified combinations of the same kind and type of resources, with common communications, and a leader (ICS).
string drop see: incremental drop
stringer FAJA DE COMBUSTIBLE Feuerbrücke ("Zündschnur") zwischen zwei potentiellen Brandflächen CORDON A narrow finger or band of fuel that connects two or more patches or areas of wildland fuel.
strip burning QUEMA POR FAJAS (1) Vorfeuer; (2) Streifenweises Überbrennen; (3) Pufferzonen Brennen (3) BRUIAGE PAR BANDES (1) A type of suppression fire. Igniting a narrow strip of fuel adjacent to a control line and then burning successively wider adjacent strips as the preceding strip burns out (syn. parallel burning). (2) Burning only a relatively narrow strip or strips through an area of slash, leaving the remainder (cf. debris burning). (3) Burning slash in strips generally 30-100 m wide along roads or barriers to subdivide the slash area into blocks (cf. debris burning).
strip fire ignition see: ignition pattern
strip firing Streifenweises Brennen Setting fire to more than one strip of fuel and providing for the strips to burn together. Frequently done in burning out against a wind where inner strips are fired first to create drafts which pull flames and sparks away from the control line (cf. strip fire Ignition under ignition patterns).
strip head fire FUEGO A FAVOR POR FAJAS Streifen-Lauffeuer BRULAGE PAR BANDES A series of lines of fire ignited near and up wind (or downslope) of a firebreak or backing fire so they burn with the wind (or upslope) toward the firebreak or backing fire.
structural fire protection Objektschutz The protection of homes or other structures from wildland fire (cf. Residential/Wildland Interface and Urban/Wildland Interface).
structure fire INCENDIO DE EDIFICIOS, INCENDIO ESTRUCTURAL Gebäudefeuer INCENDIE DE BATIMENT Fire originating in and burning any part or all of any building, shelter, or other structure.
stub TOCON Baumstumpf, Stubben CHICOT Standing section of the stem of a tree, broken off at a height of less than ca. 5 m, from which leaves and most branches have fallen (cf. snag).
subsurface fire see: ground fire
succession Sukzession The process of vegetational development whereby an area becomes successively occupied by different plant communities of higher ecological order.
suction see: draft
suction hose Saugschlauch Non-collapsible suction hose for drafting water from static sources lower than the pump (syn. intake hose, hard suction hose).
suction lift ALTURA DE ASPIRACION Saughöhe HAUTEUR D’ASPIRATION The height difference in meters of vertical lift from the surface of the water to the center of the pump impeller.
suction pipe COLUMNA SECA, CANERIA SECA Saugrohr (I) CONDUITE D’ASPIRATION, (2) COLONNE SECHE Permanent devices provided with fire pumper threads attached to speed drafting operations in many locations where there are static water sources suitable for fire protection use.
suppress a fire EXTINGUIR UN FUEG0 Löschen eines Feuers ETEINDRE UN INCENDIE To extinguish a fire.
suppressant AGENTE EXTINTOR, SUPRESOR Löschmittel AGENT EXTINCTEUR An agent that extinguishes the flaming and glowing phases of combustion by direct application to the burning fuel.
suppression see: fire suppression
suppression crew CUADRILLA DE EXTINCION, BRIGADA DE COMBATE Löschtrupp EQUIPE D’ EXTINCTION A unit of fire fighters assembled and organized for conducting fire suppression, either for initial attack and/or continuing work on fires (cf. fire crew).
suppression firing CONTRAFUEGO, COMBATE CON FUEGO [Anlegen von Feuer zur Schadfeuerbekämpfung] EMPLOI TACTIQUE DU FEU Intentional application of fire to speed up or strengthen fire suppression action on wildfires. Types of suppression firing include burning out, backfiring, line firing, counter firing, and strip burning.
surface fuel COMBUSTIBLE SUPERFICIAL Bodennahes Brennmaterial COMBUSTIBLE DE SURFACE All combustible materials lying above the duff layer between the ground and ladder fuels that are responsible for propagating surface fires (e.g., litter, herbaceous vegetation, low and medium shrubs, tree seedlings, stumps, downed-dead roundwood, dead branch material, bark, tree cones, and low stature living plants). (cf. crown fuel, ground fuel, ladder fuel)
surface wind VIENTO DE SUPERFICIE, VIENTO SUPERFICIAL Bodenwind, bodennaher Wind VENT METEOROLOGIQUE Wind measured at a surface observing station, customarily at some distance (usually ca. 6 m) above the average vegetative surface to minimize the distorting effects of local obstacles and terrain. It is often a combination of local and general winds.
survival zone Sicherheitszone A natural or cleared area of sufficient size and location to protect fire personnel from known hazards while inside a fire shelter. Examples include rock slides, road beds, clearings, knobs, wide ridges, benches, dozer lines, wet areas, cleared areas in light fuels, and previously burned areas. These are all areas where you expect no flame contact or prolonged heat and smoke. (cf. safety zone).
sustained action crew Feuertrupp im Langzeiteinsatz Personnel trained, equipped and deployed to conduct suppression action on a wildfire for an extended period of time (cf. sustained attack).
sustained attack kontinuierliche Feuerbekämpfung, bis zum Auslöschen des Feuers Continuing fire suppression action until fire is under control.
swatter see: fire swatter
swivel ROTULA Drehring MAILION TOURNANT An accessory used between the helicopter cargo hook and sling load to allow free turning of the load.
synoptic chart MAPA SINOPTICO, CARTA SINOPTICO Synoptische Karte CARTE SYNOPTIQUE In meteorology, any chart or map on which data and analyses are presented that describe the state of the atmosphere over a large area at a given moment in time (syn. weather map).
tactical direction taktische Führung Direction given by the operations section chief which includes the tactics appropriate for the selected strategy, the selection and assignment of resources, tactics implementation, and performance monitoring for each operational period.
tactics TACTICA Taktik TACTIQUE D’INCENDIE Determining exactly where and how to build a control line and what other suppression measures are necessary to extinguish the fire. Tactics must be consistent with the strategy established for suppressing the fire (cf. strategy).
tag-on SOLAPAR DESCARGAS, ENCADENAR LANZAMIENTOS Anschlussabwurf von Retardants LARGAGE SEQUENTIEL Connecting a (airtanker) drop to the forward part of a previous drop.
tailgate safety session REUNION PARA REVISION, REUNION DE PLANIFICACION Sicherheitsbriefing REUNION DE MISE A JOUR DES SECURITES Brief meetings held at the beginning, during, or end of an operational period to discuss new work assignments, new work methods, changes in plans, use of tools and equipment, and recognition and protection against work hazards that may be encountered.
tandem ACTUACION EN SERIE Tandem-Einheit EQUIPE (OPERANT) EN TANDEM A term to designate the use of two or more units of the same type (e.g., fire pumps, bulldozers, crews of fire fighters) working one in front of the other to accomplish a specific fire suppression job.
tank and gating system SISTEMA DE DESCARGA Tank- und Klappensteuersystem SYSTEME DE LARGAGE Tanks, doors, and release mechanism installed in aircraft for cascading fire retardants.
tank trailer REMOLQUE CON CISTERNA Y MOTOBOMBA Feuerwehranhänger REMORQUE ANTI INCENDIE A specialized trailer on which is mounted a tank, a fire pump, hose, and supplementary equipment.
tanker (1) Tankfahrzeug; (2) Löschflugzeug A specialized truck on which is mounted a tank, a fire pump, hose, and supplementary equipment (term sometimes used as a short form for airtanker; cf. airtanker).
target OBJETIVO DE LA DESCARGA, BLANCO Abwurfziel, Ziel OBJECTIFS DE LARGAGE A specific portion of the fire on which retardant or water is to be dropped by air tankers or helitankers.
task force MEDIOS DE LUCHA, FUERZA DE TAREA Sondereinheit, Spezialeinheit (zur Feuerbekämpfung) FORCE SPECIALE D’INTERVENTION Any combination of single resources assembled for a particular tactical need, with common communications and a leader. A Task Force may be pre-established and sent to an incident, or formed at an incident (ICS).
temperature inversion see: inversion
ten-hour timelag fuels see: timelag fuel classes
terra torch Flammenwerfer Device for throwing a stream of flaming liquid, used to facilitate rapid ignition during burn out operations on a wildfire or during a prescribed fire operation (syn. flame thrower).
test fire FUEGO DE PRUEBA Testfeuer, Probefeuer FEU EXPERIMENTAL, FEU DE CONTROLE A prescribed fire set to evaluate such parameters as fire behavior, smoke drift, efficiency in detection, or fire suppression measures.
thermal belt CINTURON TERMICO Thermal-Gürtel BANDE THERMIQUE (PENTE) An area of mountainous slope (characteristically the middle third), where the top of the radiation inversion intersects the slope. It typically experiences the least variation in diurnal temperatures and has the highest average temperatures and, thus, the lowest relative humidity. Its presence is most evident during clear weather with light wind.
thermal imagery IMAGEN DE INFRARROJOS, IMAGEN INFRARROJA Thermalbild, Infrarotbild IMAGERIE THERMIQUE The display or printout of an infrared scanner operating over a fire (syn. infrared imagery).
thermograph Thermograph (Temperaturmessgerät mit Aufzeichnung) A self-recording thermometer or an instrument that records automatically and continuously air temperature on a chart (cf. hygrothermograph).
thickened solution DISOLUCION ESPESA, SOLUCION VISCOSA Verdickte Lösung SOLUTION DENSE, BOUILLIE EPAISSE A solution, e.g. a fire retardant-water solution, that has a viscosity exceeding 200 centipoise.
thin layer CAPA POCO ESPESA, CAPA DELGADA DE NUBES Dünne Wolkenschicht (Bewölkungsgrad <4/8) COUCHE NUAGEUSE MINCE Layer of clouds whose ratio of dense sky cover to total sky cover is 4/8 or less.
thin sky cover CIELO PARCIALMENTE NUBOSO Dünne Wolkendecke COUVERTURE NUAGEUSE DIFFUSE Sky cover through which higher clouds or the sky can be detected.
thread ROSCA Schraubgewinde FILETAGE A PAS STANDARDISE Screw thread employed to coupled fire hose and equipment. Specific dimensions vary i.a.w. national and international standards.
three-way radio RADIO DE DOS CANALES, RADIOTRANSMISOR DUPLEX Funkgerät zum Gegensprechen (Duplexverfahren) RADIO DUPLEX Radio equipment with transmitters in the mobile units on different frequencies from the central station, permitting conversation in two directions using two adjacent wave lengths. Also, mobile car-to-car communications.
throw out CABALLON Überwurf von Mineralboden SOL VERSE (LABOUR) Soil pushed over the edge of the fireline by the fire plow. During the mop-up stage, the shoulder of the plowline should be checked for hot smoldering spots.
thunderstorm TORMENTA CON APARATO ELECTRICO, TORMENTA ELECTRICA Gewitter ORAGE A short-lived storm that is produced by clouds of great vertical extent and that is always accompanied by lightning and thunder. A thunderstorm frequently produces strong, gusty winds, heavy rain, and occasionally hail. Sometimes, particularly in and close to the mountainous areas, water drops from a thunderstorm are small, and they evaporate before reaching the ground as precipitation.
tie-in Verbinden von Bekämpfungslinien oder Feuerschutzstreifen Act of connecting a control line to another line or an intended firebreak.
time-temperature curve Zeit-Temperatur-Kurve Graph showing the increase in temperature at a specified point in a fire as a function of time, beginning with ignition and ending with burnout.
timelag TIEMPO DE RETRASO, TIEMPO DE PERDIDA Zeitverzug (Anpassung der Feuchtigkeit des Brennmaterials) TEMPS DE DESSICATION Time needed under specified conditions for a fuel particle to lose about 63 percent of the difference between its initial moisture content and its equilibrium moisture content. If conditions remain unchanged, a fuel will reach 95 percent of its equilibrium moisture content after 4 timelag periods (cf. light fuel).
timelag fuel classes TIEMPO DE RETRASO, TIEMPO DE PERDIDA Zeitverzugklasse (Anpassung der Feuchtigkeit des Brennmaterials) TEMPS DE DESSICATION Classification of fuels according to time needed under specified conditions for a fuel particle to lose about 63 percent of the difference between its initial moisture content and its equilibrium moisture content. The following four classes are distinguished: One-Hour (1-hr) Timelag Fuels Dead fuels consisting of herbaceous plants and roundwood less than about 0.6 cm in diameter. Also included is the uppermost litter layer. Ten-Hour (10-hr)Timelag Fuels Dead fuels consisting of roundwood 0.6 to 2.5 cm in diameter and, very roughly, the layer of litter extending from immediately below the surface to 2 cm below the surface. One Hundred-Hour (100-hr)Timelag Fuels Dead fuels consisting of roundwood in the size range of 2.5 to 7.5 cm in diameter and very roughly the layer of litter extending from approximately 2-10 cm below the surface. One Thousand-Hour (1000-hr) Timelag Fuels Dead fuels consisting of roundwood 7.5 to 20 cm in diameter and the layer of the forest floor more than about 10 cm below the surface.
tinder Zunder, feines Brennmaterial Low density solids or aggregates of particles (e.g., duff, rotten wood). (cf. punk)
torching fire Auffackeln eines Bodenfeuers in eine einzelne Baumkrone The process by which a single tree, or of a group of trees, is engulfed by an upward surge of flame, occuring as a relatively isolated phenomemon during the advance of a surface fire. Distinguished from .crowning, in which larger groups of trees are enflamed (syn. candling).
total fuel Gesamtes Brennmaterial All plant material both living and dead that can be consumed by fire under extreme burning conditions.
total mobility TOTAL MOBILITY [MOVILIDAD TOTAL] Verlegungs-und Einsatzkapapzität MOBILITE TOTALE The capability to move, position, and utilize established forces to meet existing and anticipated fire protection needs nationwide.
Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) [Eigenname] The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) is a spaceborne measuring device that provides daily global data on atmospheric aerosol and ozone levels, thus allowing the observion of a variety of Earth events including vegetation fires and dust storms.
total suspended particulate matter (TSP) luftgetragene Partikel Particles emitted from a pollution source regardless of size.
touchdown pad PUNTO DE ATERRIZAJE Landefläche, Absetzfläche ROND D’HELICOPTERE That portion of a heliport or helispot where the helicopter lands.
tower cupola see:lookout house
tractor line see: dozer line
tractor plow TRACTOR CON ARADO Pflug an einer Planierraupe VEHICULE PORTEUR ET SA CHARRUE DECAPEUSE Any tracked vehicle, with a plow for exposing mineral soil, with transportation and personnel for its operation.
trail drop see: incremental drop
transport windspeed VELOCIDAD DEL VIENTO Windgeschwindigkeit des Transportwindes VITESSE DE TRANSPORT DU VENT A measure of the average rate of the horizontal transport of air within the mixing layer. May also be the wind speed at the final height of plume rise. Generally refers to the rate at which emissions will be transported from one area to another.
transportation map MAPA DE COMUNICACIONES (TRASLADO) Boden-und Luftverkehrskarte CARTE DES VOIES TERRESTRES ET AERIENNES Base map of the planning unit showing all roads, trails, heliports, and airfields existing and programmed for construction.
travel time TIEMPO DE DESPLAZAMIENTO Anmarschzeit TEMPS DE TRANSPORT Elapsed time from the departure of the initial attack crew until they arrive at and begin work on the fire.
travel time map MAPA DE TIEMPOS DE DESPLAZAMIENTO (TRASLADO) Karte für Anmarschzeiten CARTE DES DELAIS DE TRANSPORT Map showing the time required for the initial attack crew to reach various parts of a protection unit from specified positions.
trench Graben A ditch dug on a slope below a fire, generally as part of a fireline, designed to catch rolling firebrands (syn. fire trench).
tropopause Tropopause The transition layer between the troposphere and the stratosphere.
troposphere Troposhäre Lowest layer of the atmosphere, bounded by the Earth beneath and the stratosphere above, with its upper boundary being the tropopause, about 10-13 km above the Earth's surface. The troposphere is marked by decreasing temperature with height and is distinguished from the overlying stratosphere by the nearly constant temperature with height of the latter region. Most of the clouds and weather systems are contained within the troposphere (cf. stratosphere).
trough Tiefdruckkeil An elongated area of relatively low atmospheric pressure, usually extending from the center of a low pressure system.
truck trail PISTA (SENDA) PARA CAMIONES Maschinenweg (Zufahrtsweg für Feuerwehrfahrzeuge) PISTE DE DEFENSE CONTRE L’INCENDIE Substantial transportation route for fire suppression motor vehicles, built prior to a fire.
true bearing AZIMUT, ~AZIMUT VERDADERO Peilung (wahre) GISEMENT/AZIMUT VRAI Bearing by true north rather than magnetic north.
turn around RODEAR EL FUEGO [Übergang vom Parallel- zum Direktangriff] (1) CONTROLER A PARTIR DES FLANCS To contain a fire along a flank and begin containing it across the head (syn. turn the corner).
turn around time TIEMPO ENTRE DESCARGAS (LANZAMIENTOS) Umdrehzeit Time used by an air tanker or helitanker to reload and return to the fire.
turn the corner see: turn around
two-way radio RADIO MONOCANAL, RADIO TRANSMISOR MONOCANAL Funkgerät zum Wechselsprechen (Simplex) RADIO MONO-CANAL Radio equipment with transmitters in mobile units on the same frequency as the base station, permitting conversation in two directions using the same frequency in turn.
type of fire see: typology under forest fire
unacceptable fire risk Nicht akzeptierbares Feuerrisiko Level of fire risk above which specific action is deemed necessary to protect life, property and resources.
uncontrolled fire Unkontrolliertes Feuer (1) Any fire which threatens to destroy life, property, or natural resources, and (a) is not burning within the confines of firebreaks, or (b) is burning with such intensity that it could not be readily extinguished with ordinary tools commonly available.
under control see: control a fire
underburning QUEMA LIGERA, QUEMA SUPERFICIAL LIVIANA Durchbrennen (unter Kronenschirm) FEU COURANT Prescribed burning with a low intensity fire in activity-created or natural fuels under a timber canopy (syn. understory burning, cf. premarking burn).
undercut line LINEA DE DEFENSA LADERA ABAJO, LINEA DE FUEGO EN LADERA INFERIOR Bekämpfungslinie am Hang (unterhalb des Feuers) LIGNE ENTAILLEE A fireline below a fire on a slope. Should be trenched to catch rolling material. Also called underslung line.
understory burning see: underburning
understory fire Feuer im Unterstand A low intensity fire that burns beneath the canopy of a timber stand. It can occur during the course of a wildfire as well as under prescribed fire conditions.
unified command Vereinigte Kommandostrukturen A unified team effort which allows all agencies with jurisdictional responsibility for the incident, either geographical or functional, to manage an incident by establishing a common set of incident objectives and strategies. This is accomplished without losing or abdicating authority, responsibility, or accountability (ICS).
uniform fuels Gleichmässig strukturierte und verteilte Brennmaterialien Identical or consistent fuels distributed continuously, thereby providing a continuous path for the fire to spread.
universal time coordinated (utc) Koordinierte Weltzeit International basis of civil and scientific time, implemented in 1964. UTC is widely broadcast by precisely coordinated radio signals; these radio time signals ultimately furnish the basis for the setting of all public and private clocks. Since 1 January 1972, UTC has been obtained from atomic clocks. The unit of UTC is the atomic (SI) second.
unknown see: fire cause (classes)
unlined fire hose MANGUERA HUMEDA, MANGUERA LLORONA Druckschlauch (ungummiert) TUYAU D'INCENDIE NON DOUBLE Hose commonly of cotton, linen, or synthetic fiber construction without rubber tube or lining, often used for wildfires because of its light weight and self protecting (weeping) characteristics.
unthickened solution SOLUCION CLARA, SOLUCI0N NO ESPESA Unverdickte Lösung SOLUTION DILUEE (BOUILLIE) A solution whose viscosity is less than 200 centipoise.
upper winds see: winds aloft
urban AREA URBANA Stadtbereich, städtisch URBANISE An area wherein the residences and other human developments form an essentially solid covering of the landscape, including most areas within cities and towns, subdivisions, commercial and industrial parks, and similar developments whether inside city limits or not (cf. residential/wildland Interface).
urban/wildland interface ENTORNO FORESTAL DEL AREA URBANA, LIMITE URBANO FORESTAL [Berührungszone zwischen städtischem und unbesiedeltem Bereich] PERIMETRE DE ZONE URBANISEE INTERFACE VILLE/CAMPAGNE The transition zone (1) between cities and wildland (cf. urban, wildland, wildland fire), (2) where structures and other human development meets undeveloped wildland or vegetative fuels (syn. residential/wildland interface, wildland/urban interface, rural urban interface).
values-at-risk VALORES AMENAZADOS Gefährdete wertvolle Ressourcen RICHESSES EXPOSEES A L’INCENDIE Natural resources, developments, or other values that may be jeopardized if a fire occurs.
variable ceiling TECHO DE NUBES VARIABLE Wolkenuntergrenze, veränderliche PLAFOND VARIABLE A ceiling of less than 1000 m which rapidly increases or decreases in height by one or more reportable values during the period of observation.
variable fire danger PELIGRO VARIABLE Feuergefährdung (variabel) RISQUE M0MENTANE D'INCENDIE Resultant of all fire danger factors that vary from day to day, month to month, or year to year (e.g., fire weather, fuel moisture content, condition of vegetation, variable man-caused fire hazard, and variable risks of ignition (cf. constant fire danger).
variable sky condition NUBOSIDAD VARIABLE Himmelszustand (veränderlicher) CONDITION DE CIEL VARIABLE A sky condition that varies between reportable values of sky cover amounts during the period of observation.
variable visibility VISIBILIDAD VARIABLE Sicht (veränderliche) VISIBILITE VARIABLE A condition when the prevailing visibility is less than 3 miles (5 km) and rapidly increases and decreases by one or more reportable values during the period of observation.
variable wind direction DIRECCION DEL VIENTO VARIABLE Windrichtung (veränderliche) VENT VARIABLE, VENT INSTABLE (1) Wind which moves from one direction, to another. (2) Wind direction which varies by 60 degrees or more during the period of time the wind direction is being determined.
ventilated psychrometer see: psychrometer
ventilation factor Durchlüftungsfaktor A numerical value relating the potential of the atmosphere to disperse airborne pollutants from a stationary source, calculated by multiplying the mixing height by the transport wind speed.
ventilation index (vi) Durchlüftungs-Index A term commonly used in air pollution meteorology. The VI is a numerical value relating to the potential of the atmosphere to disperse airborne pollutants from a stationary source (e.g., smoke from a prescribed fire). It is calculated by multiplying the mixing height by the average wind speed in the mixed layer.
vertical (fuel) arrangement DISTRIBUCION VERTICAL DEL COMBUSTIBLE Vertikale Anordnung des Brennmaterials DISTRIBUTION VERTICALE DES COMBUSTIBLES Fuels above ground and their vertical continuity, which influences fire reaching various levels or vegetation strata.
vertical temperature profile vertikales Temperaturprofil Plot of the actual dry-bulb temperature against height above the earth's surface, most commonly determined by a rawinsonde observation.
vertical wind profile Windprofil (vertikales) A plot of winds aloft against height above the earth's surface; most commonly determined by a pilot balloon observation; used for the fire weather forecast.
very high frequency (VHF) VHF-Frequenz Radio frequency range from 30 MHz to 299 MHz.
viscosity Viscosität, Zähflüssigkeit The relative ability of a fluid to resist flow (cf. centipoise).
viscous water AGUA CON VISCOSANTE, AGUA VISCOSA Viskoses Wasser EAU VISQUEUSE Water that contains a thickening agent to reduce surface runoff; tends to cling to burning fuels and spread in layers that are several times thicker than plain water, thereby having an increased capacity to absorb heat, cool fuel, and exclude oxygen. Also called thickened water.
visibility VISIBILIDAD Sicht (-weite) LIMITE DE VISIBILITE The greatest distance at which selected objects can be seen and identified, or its equivalent derived from instrumental measurements.
visibility area map Karte mit Angaben über die Sichtweiten Map showing the different classes of visible area covered by a lookout point or points; may differentiate between seen areas, indirectly visible areas, and blind areas, or only between seen areas and blind areas (syn. seen area map).
visibility distance DISTANCIA CON VISIBILIDAD, DISTANCIA VISIBLE Erkennungsdistanz DISTANCE DE VISIBILITE The maximum distance at which a smoke column of specified size and density can be seen and recognized as smoke by the unaided eye.
visible area map MAPA DEL AREA VISIBLE [Karte des einzusehenden Geländes] CARTE DES ZONES VISIBLES (A PARTIR D’UN POINT) (OBSERVABLES) A map showing the different classes of visible area covered by a lookout point or points (Note: It may differentiate between directly visible areas, indirectly visible areas, and blind areas, or only between visible and blind).
visual flight rules (vfr) conditions CONDICIONES VFR Sichtflugbedingungen CONDITIONS VFR (DE VOL A VUE) The basic weather conditions prescribed for flight under visual flight rules. This is a ceiling above one thousand feet (300 m) and visibility in excess of three miles (5 km).
volatiles VOLATILES Flüchtige Substanzen SUBSTANCES VOLATILES Readily vaporized organic materials which, when mixed with oxygen, are easily ignited.
volunteer firefighter VOLUNTARIO, COMBATIENTE VOLUNTARIO Freiwilliger Feuerwehrmann POMPIER VOL0NTAIRE Legally enrolled firefighter under the fire department organization laws who devotes time and energy to community fire service with little monetary compensation.
vortex turbulence TORBELLINO EN PUNTA DE PLANO Luftwirbelschleppe, Vortex TURBULENCE „EN VORTEX“ (TURBULENCE EN TOURBILLON) (1) Horizontal whirlwind created in the wake of fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft that are in flight. Under certain atmospheric conditions, this turbulent air can be projected to the ground and in turn adversely affect fire behaviour. A small fire or segment of a fire perimeter can unexpectedly flareup, particularly if the wind speed is light and an unstable atmosphere exists. (2) Fire-generated horizontal whirlwinds occuring parallelly to the movement of a high-intensity fire and causing wind-influenced patterns of different fire intensities and severities. This phenomenon results in the formation of strips of forest trees typically shaped by higher or lower crown scorch/mortality.
walkie-talkie Handfunkgerät A combined voice transmitter and receiver light enough to be carried by one person.
warm front Warmfront Interface or transition zone between two air masses of different density and temperature; the leading edge of a relatively warm air mass which moves in such a way so that warm air displaces colder air, occasionally associated with thunderstorms.
water bar DIQUE Querrinne CANIVEAU (SAIGNEE) A shallow channel or raised barrier, e.g., a ridge of packed earth or a thin pole laid diagonally across the surface of a road or trail so as to lead off water, particularly storm water; frequently installed in firelines on steep slopes to prevent erosion.
water bomber see: airtanker
water bombing Abwerfen von Löschwasser The act of dropping water on a wildfire from an aircraft in flight (cf. aerial attack, water dropping, fire bombing).
water bucket Hubschrauber-Aussenlastbehälter für Löschmittelabwurf A container filled with water or retardant. Term commonly used for helicopter buckets (syn. helibucket).
water dropping Abwurf von Löschwasser The act of dropping water from aircraft or a helicopter in flight (syn. water bombing, aerial attack).
Water Expansion Pumping System (WEPS) EQUIPO NO PRESURIZADO PARA PRODUCCION DE ESPUMA Schaumgenerator AGITATEUR INJECTEUR PNEUMATIQUE A MOUSSE Apparatus utilizing an air compressor and positive displacement pump coupled to the same engine, plumbed to a non-pressurized tank, for producing foam. The operation involves injecting compressed air into a liquid stream containing a suitable foaming agent.
Water Expansion System (WES) see: Water Expansion Pumping System (WEPS)
water hammer GOLPE DE ARIETE, GOLPE DE AGUA Druckstoss COUP DE BELIER Impact energy due to sudden shutting of fire nozzles, proportional to the mass multiplied by the square of the velocity.
water source PUNTO DE AGUA, FUENTE DE AGUA Wasserentnahmestelle CHATEAU D’EAU, POINT D’EAU A strategical important place from which water resources can be obtained for pumps, tanks, trucks, helicopters, or camp use.
water supply map MAPA DE PUNTOS (FUENTES) DE AGUA Karte von Wasserentnahmestellen CARTE DES POINTS D’EAU Map showing location of water sources.
water tender CAMION CISTERNA Tankwagen CAMION CITERNE Any ground vehicle capable of transporting and storing water in containers.
watershed Wassereinzugsgebiet, Wasserscheide Area from which all precipitation flows to a single stream or set of streams. Note: The boundary between the watershed is a watershed divide: all the precipitation on opposite sides of a watershed divide will flow into different watersheds.
weather advisory INFORMACION DEL TIEMPO Wetterberatung BULLETIN DE RENSEIGNEMENTS METEOROLOGIQUES [Aeronautics] A report on existing or predicted weather conditions, often with advice for how to deal with it, especially in the case of hazardous weather conditions not predicted in the area forecast, as they affect the the operation process.
weather map see: synoptic chart
weather observer Wetterbeobachter Person responsible for collecting current weather data and information at the incident and providing them to an assigned meteorologist, fire behavior specialist, or the situation unit leader. The data are monitored frequently, every one or two hours.
weather warning Wetterwarnung Statement that dangerous weather is likely or is occurring.
wet deposition Feuchte Deposition Removal of contents of air masses onto a substrate with involvement of rain, clouds or fog.
wet foam Schaum geringer Konsistenz, Schwerschaum A low expansion foam type with few and varied bubbles and rapid drain time which is used for rapid penetration and fire extinguishment.
wet line EXTINCION CON AGUA, LINEA HUMEDA Nasse Bekämpfungslinie LIGNE TRAITEE A L’EAU (OU RETARDANT) A fire control line prepared by water, or water and chemical retardant, sprayed along the ground, and which serves as a temporary control line to stop a low-intensity fire or from which to ignite a backfire.
wet run see: drop pass
wet storage ALMACENAMIENTO DE RETARDANTE EN LIQUIDO Flüssiglagerung (Retardants) BOUILLIE RETARDANTE (PRETE A L’EMPLOI) Fire retardants mixed with water and stored in tanks at air attack bases for immediate use by air tankers.
wet water AGUA CON DETERGENTE, AGUA HUMEDA Entspanntes Wasser, Netzwasser, "nasses" Wasser EAU AVEC AGENT MOUILLANT Water with added chemicals, called wetting agents, that increase water's spreading and penetrating properties due to a reduction in surface tension (cf. wetting agent).
wet-bulb depression DEPRESION PSICROMETRICA, DIFERENCIA PSICROMETRICA Feuchttemperaturdifferenz DIFFERENCE PSYCHROMETRIQUE The difference between the wet and dry-bulb temperatures recorded by a psychrometer; used in conjunction with the dry-bulb temperature as a measure of the relative humidity of the air (cf. psychrometer).
wet-bulb temperature TEMPERATURA DEL TERMOMETRO HUMEDO, TEMPERATURA DEL BULBO HUMEDO Temperatur feuchtes Thermometer TEMPERATURE DE SATURATION Technically, the temperature registered by the wet-bulb thermometer of a psychrometer. It is the lowest temperature to which air can be cooled by evaporating water into it at a constant atmospheric pressure (cf. psychrometer, wet-bulb thermometer).
wet-bulb thermometer Temperatur feuchtes Thermometer In a psychrometer, the thermometer with its bulb covered with a jacket of clean muslin which is saturated with distilled water before an observation (cf. psychrometer,wet-bulb temperature).
wetting agent HUMECTANTE, DETERGENTE; AGENTE HUMECTANTE Netzmittel AGENT MOUILLANT A chemical that when added to water reduces the surface tension of the solution and causes it to spread and penetrate exposed objects more effectively than the untreated water (cf. wet water).
whirlwind see: fire whirl
widow-maker RAMA SECA, COMBUSTIBLE AEREO CAEDIZO [Ast, abgestorbener und hängender] BRANCHE (OU ECORCE) MORTE SUSPENDUE DANS LA CIME Slang term for loose limb or top, or piece of bark lodged in a tree, which may fall on anyone working underneath it.
wilderness ESPACIO NATURAL PROTEGIDO, AREA SILVESTRE PROTEGIDA Wildnis (naturnahe, natürliche Landschaft RESERVE DE NATURE (BIOLOGIQUE, PROTEGEE) (1) A wild, uncultivated, uninhabited region, vegetated and non-vegetated. (2) Area of remarkable natural beauty and ecological diversity. (3) Area established to conserve its primeval character and influence for public enjoyment, under uncultivated conditions, in perpetuity.
wildfire INCENDIO FORESTAL Unkontrolliertes Feuer, Wildfeuer INCENDIE DE FORET, (FEU DE FORET) (1) Any unplanned and uncontrolled wildland fire which regardless of ignition source may require suppression response, or other action according to agency policy. (2) Any free burning wildland fire unaffected by fire suppression measures which meets management objectives (cf. wildland, wildland fire, prescribed natural fire, prescribed fire).
wildland MONTE, AREA SILVESTRE [Landschaft mit naturnaher, natürlicher oder bewirtschafteter Vegetationsbedeckung, weitgehend unerschlossen] FRICHE, TERRE VIERGE Vegetated and non-vegetated land in which development is essentially non-existent, except for roads, railroads, powerlines, and similar transportation facilities; structures, if any, are widely scattered. In fire management terminology this general term includes all burnable vegetation resources including managed forests and forest plantations (cf. residential/wildland interface, wildfire).
wildland fire [Feuer in einer Landschaft mit naturnaher, natürlicher oder bewirtschafteter Vegetationsbedeckung, weitgehend unerschlossen] Any fire occurring on wildland regardless of ignition sources, damages or benefits (cf. wildland, wildfire, residential/wildland interface).
wildland fuels Brennmaterialien der naturnahen Landschaft Any organic material, living or dead, in the ground, on the ground, or in the air, that will ignite and burn.
wildland/urban interface see: urban/wildland interface
wind direction DIRECCION DEL VIENTO Windrichtung DIRECTION DU VENT The direction from which the wind is blowing.
wind profile Windprofil A chart of wind speed in relation to height, most commonly determined by a pilot balloon observation.
wind shear A variation in wind speed and/or direction in a layer of the atmosphere or between layers. A strong wind shear may act like an inversion and inhibit plume rise. It may also fracture the smoke plume, not allowing smoke to rise much above terrain levels. A strong horizontal anticyclonic shear results in downward motion and may bring smoke aloft to the surface.
wind shift CAMBIO DEL VIENTO Änderung der Windrichtung RENVERSEMENT (RETOURNEMENT) DU VENT A change in the average wind direction of 45 degrees or more which takes place in less than 15 minutes if the wind speed during this period is 6 knots (3 m/s) or greater.
wind speed Windgeschwindigkeit The rate of horizontal motion of the air past a given point expressed in terms of distance per unit of time. If determined with an anemometer, at the international standard height of 10 metres (m) in the open on level terrain or at 10m above a closed vegetative canopy. Wind speed for fire management purposes is normally averaged over a 10-minute interval (unit: km/h) (cf. wind velocity).
wind vectors Windvektoren Wind directions used to calculate fire behavior.
wind velocity see: wind speed
wind-driven wildfire Vom Wind getriebenes Feuer A wildfire that is controlled by wind
windfall ARBOL TIRADO (VOLTEADO) POR EL VIENTO Windwurf, Windbruch BRIS DE VENT (ARBRE), CHABLIS A tree or trees that have been uprooted or broken off by wind, or an area of previously standing timber that has been blown over by strong winds or storms (syn. blowdown, windthrow).
windrow Schlagabraum, auf streifenförmige Wälle geschoben Woody debris that has been piled into a long continuous row.
windrow burning Verbrennen von Schlagabraum auf Wällen Burning slash that has been piled into long continuous rows (cf. broadcast burning, debris burning, piling and burning).
winds aloft VIENTOS EN (DE) ALTURA Höhenwinde VENTS D’ALTITUDE A meteorological term referring to the wind speeds and wind directions at various levels in the atmosphere above the domain of surface weather observations (syn. upper winds).
windspeed meter see: anemometer
windthrow see: windfall
wye BIFURCACION Verteiler RACC0RD A DEUX (2) VOIES (RACCORD EU Y) A hose connection with two outlets, preferably gated, permitting two connections of the same coupling diameter to be taken from a single supply line.
zone weather forecast PREDICCION METEOROLOGICA, PRONOSTICO METEOROLOGICO ZONAL Gebietswettervorhersage PREVISION METEOROLOGIQUE Fire weather forecast issued specifically to fit the requirements of fire management needs (i.e., time, area, and weather elements), issued on a regular basis during the normal fire season. Zones or areas are a combination of administrative and climatological areas, usually about the size of an individual forest or district.