Photo Archive

Nepal

© It is not permitted to export, utilize and publish any photograph without the written permission of the GFMC. This includes photos taken by third parties.


 11205 Byte

Fig.1. Physio-geographic map of Nepal.

 

 30925 Byte

25048 Byte

Fig.2/3. Encroachment of farming sites into steep slopes and high elevations create major problems in deforestation, forest fires, and erosion. The lack of snow pack in high elevations in early 1999 will lead to severe water supply problems in the lowlands during the dry season.

 

 38838 Byte

Fig.4. Lack of fodder sources for animal husbandry forces the smallholder to utilize green leaves: Lopping removes large part of crown cover of this forest stand (Terminalia tormentosa), leads to microclimate changes and increases the risk of forest fires. In many places, however, little to none surface fuels are left due to intensive utilization. These overutilized forests become less flammable but are subjected to high erosion rates.

 

 52544 Byte

19718 Byte

Fig.5/6. The Terai forests which are dominated by fire resistant Sal (Shorea robusta) are regularly (annually) swept by fire.

 

 48477 Byte

Fig.7. Open stand of tall Sal (Shorea robusta) trees in the Southern Terai of Nepal. This kind of species-poor, Sal-dominated forest stand is the result of fire influence over many years.

 

 49049 Byte

Fig.8. Despite the fact that Sal trees are well adapted to annual fires, the forest soils after fire are depleted from protecting litter layer and are subjected to high surface runoff and soil erosion.

 

 39344 Byte

Fig.9. Besides Sal trees many herb species are adapted to recurrent fires.

 

Literature on fire in Nepal:

Schmidt-Vogt, D. 1990. Fire in high-altitude forests of the Nepal Himalaya. In: Fire in ecosystem dynamics. Mediterranean and northern perspectives (J.G. Goldammer and M.J.Jenkins, eds.), 191-199. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, 199 p.

Goldammer, J.G. 1993. Feuer in Waldökosystemen der Tropen und Subtropen. Birkhäuser-Verlag, Basel-Boston, 251 p.

Sharma, S.P. 1996. Forest fire in Nepal. Int. Forest Fire News No. 15.


Top
Back